This article describes a new methodological approach of modeling the field parameters of socio-geographical objects by cumulative influence. This method involves determining the radius of the zone of influence of each object and determines the influence function, which interpreted as the opportunity to meet certain social needs. Integral function of the impact is determined by adding the influence functions of interacting objects and displayed on the background component, which depends only on the location of objects on the territory, and the attribute reflecting their interaction depending on the value of the parameter. The method makes it possible to explore a variety of structural sections of the field by changing the base radius of influence.
Numerical dynamic analysis was carried out for a field in the coastal swamp depobelt of the Niger Delta basin using subsurface growth faults mapped by detailed 3D structural interpretation of seismic data. Orientation analysis of the faults provided the necessary fault plane data while the requisite kinematic information, comprising of slip directions and senses of movement on the faults, were respectively extracted from fault surface corrugations and cut-off points of seismic horizons on the faults. This data set was subjected to paleostress inversion using the rotational optimization module of the Win-tensor program. The results show that the faults are basically dip slip faults with only minor lateral components of displacement. More importantly, it reveals the best-fit paleostress tensor, considered to be active during the Upper Miocene, in the coastal swamp depobelt of the basin, to be a purely extensional stress tensor characterized by a maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) oriented NE-SW and a NW-SE principal extension direction. None of the three principal stresses was found to be truly vertical or horizontal.
This study assessed the concentration of As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, V, Sr, Y, Nb, Zr, Cl, TS, TiO2, MnO, CaO and P2O5 in the mangrove sediment and R. racemosa samples from Choba, Ogbogoro and Isaka in Niger Delta, Nigeria. A total of 6 sediment and 9 R. racemosa samples were collected using the simple random sampling. Two core sediment samples of 10 cm depth and three R. racemosa leave, stem and root samples were collected from each of the sampled locations. Both the sediment and R. racemosa samples were oven dried, powdered, made into briquettes and analyzed using XRF. The results showed contrasting heavy metal concentrations in the sediments and R. racemosa. As, Pb, Cu, Ni, Y, Nb and Zr had higher concentrations in the sediments while the concentrations of Zn, Sr, Cl, TS, MnO, CaO and P2O5 were more in R. racemosa tissue. However, Cr, V and TiO2 which had relatively high concentrations in the sediments were not detected in R. racemosa. Graphical analyses revealed a correlation between concentrations in sediment and R. racemosa as well as a similar pattern of heavy metal concentrations in the R. racemosa leaves, stems and roots in Choba, Ogbogoro and Isaka. But variations were found in the leaf/stem and leaf/root upward transport relationship. Most heavy metals were found to concentrate in R. racemosa roots while the least concentrations were found in the leaves.
Urban places in the developing world like their advanced counterparts are experiencing unprecedented extensions, although mostly in an uncontrolled manner. Calabar is no exception to such urban extension, with notable sprawl especially with increased densification within the city and expansion along the fringes. This study aimed at assessing landuse/ land-cover (LULC) changes in Calabar between the year 2000 and 2018. 30 m Landsat imageries of both years were acquired from the Landlook platform. The imageries were subjected to the unsupervised classification process using the Iso Cluster and Maximum Likelihood Classification tools. Measurements were done on the raster outputs to allow for a comparison of the LULC statistics which assisted in identifying the rate of urban extension in Calabar over the period. Results showed that in the year 2000, out of the total 164.3 square kilometers (sqkm) covered by the city, the extent of urban built-up was 28.7 sqkm and 62.2 sqkm for green areas. However, in the year 2018, the urban built-up area increased to 44.8 sqm and green areas witnessed a reduction to 52.7 sqkm. Wet lands also reduced in the area by 5.2 sqkm. Likewise, built up areas had a percentage change rate of 56.10 while green areas and wet lands had -15.27 and -9.3 percent change rates respectively. The spate of urban extension and encroachment into green areas and wet lands in Calabar is obvious and inevitable. It is thus necessary that measures be taken by relevant government agencies to monitor and manage the urban extension, such that the development is organized and sustainable.
The water crisis is assuming serious proportions in the world. If we look at the present scenario of water availability in India we observe that India with its per capita availability of less than 1600 m3 of water is a water-stressed country. The rising demand is likely to push it further to water scarce category if drastic measures of conservation and its efficient use is not promoted and adopted. The availability of water in India also shows variation in distribution from one region to another. Out of the total water consumption in the world about 70 percent is consumed by the agricultural sector. In India about 80 percent of the water goes to agricultural sector. It can be said that wasteful irrigation practices like flood and furrow irrigation are major culprits causing wastage of water leading to its crisis which is worsening day by day. The technology of drip irrigation comes with the solutions to save water and therefore its adoption in Indian context becomes indispensable. It is important for almost all the developing agrarian nations, which often face water scarcity due to hydro-meteorological extremes like droughts, extreme events, etc., and are struggling hard to increase crop productivity. Curtailment of waste and efficient use of water in the agricultural sector should be the priority of the nation if it seriously wants to tackle the issue. The major objective of this paper is to assess the potential, current status and identify challenges related to drip irrigation development in India.