Open Access Original Research Article

In-Migration, Distance and Patronage of Secondary Schools in Urban Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Abuh, Paul Ojochenemi, K. T. Oyatayo

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/26271

The study is concerned with In- Migration, Distance and Patronage of Secondary Schools in Urban Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Data was obtained through the administration of 210 questionnaire for students and 35 questionnaire for Tutors. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Multiple regression was used to test the stated hypothesis that distance is a significant determinant of secondary schools in urban Zaria. The study reveals that 48.2 percent and 36.5 percent consider perception and income respectively, as the most important factors that determine patronage of secondary in urban Zaria. Furthermore, R2 of 96.3% shows that the relationship between variables used in the study is quite strong. This view is supported by the F- ratio obtained (26.0270). The presence of educational institution in Urban Zaria, Kaduna, State, Nigeria is the major pull factor of migrant. This is because most of the migrant came to urban Zaria to seek employment opportunities in the educational institutions. It is important to note that the children of these migrant are enrolled in the various secondary schools. Therefore, all stakeholders (Federal Government, State Ministry of Education, Private individuals) must be committed to the provision of quality education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Waste Characterization Study to Mitigate a Land Based Source of River Pollution: Case of Nkam River in the Yabassi Municipality

Oben M. Lawrence, Ntse Maxim, Besack Felix

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/44894

Aims: The research work is aimed at evaluating the land base source of River pollution using a waste characterisation study in the Yabassi municipality in order to design strategies for mitigating pollution of the Nkam River.

Study Design: A household survey involving random sampling of 45 households in three residential neighbourhoods (Banya, Ndogbele and the Administrative Centre) to determine their socioeconomic status. Of a total of 117 participants, 45 (44.0%) lived in Banya, 30 (34.2%) in Ndogbele and 25 (24.8%) in the Administrative Centre.

Place and Duration of Study: Yabassi Municipality involving three residential neighbourhoods (Banya, Ndogbele and the Administrative Centre) between February and July 2017.

Methodology: Household surveys involving three residential neighbourhoods (Banya, Ndogbele and the Administrative Centre) in the Yabassi municipality was carried out to identify individuals belonging to the three socio-economic income classes (low, medium and high). A questionnaire was administered to 117 persons randomly selected from 45 households i.e. 15 from each of the three residential neighbourhoods to participate in a two weeks waste characterisation study. The waste produced by the participating households was sorted manually at the source, weighed using a mechanical balance and classified into 6 categories: organic materials, plastic bags and bottles, glass, textile, metal, cardboard and paper. Participant observation and participatory appraisal methods were used throughout the field study to make acquaintances with the household structure and informal structure, evaluate the performance of waste collection, disposal and treatment methods in the low, medium and high residential areas, identify constraints faced by households in the collection and disposal of wastes. Make a direct observation and visual evaluation of clandestine garbage dumps near the Nkam River to identify land based pollutants. 

Results: The 117 persons randomly selected from 45 households in the Yabassi municipality produced 709, 5 kg of solid waste in two weeks that gave a per capita waste generation rate (kg/persons/day) of 0.43 kg per day. The average percentage composition of the household waste in the three residential neighbourhoods showed organic waste material as the most dominant waste fraction (Banya 70%, Ndogbele 63.8% and the Administrative Center 19.9%). The large quantity of organic waste material in Banya and Ndogbele can be explained by its large populations, their socioeconomic status classified as low and medium respectively with a majority of the inhabitants involved in agriculture and fishing. In general lifestyle and culture is greatly influenced by socio-economic activities (agriculture and fishing) of the inhabitants of Banya and Ndogbele with major influence on their feeding habits with cassava, plantains, fish and green vegetables being the stable foodstuffs. The small quantity of organic waste material (19,9%) in the Administrative Center was due to the low population, the high socioeconomic status (civil servants and economic operators). The large quantity of recyclables e.g. metal (44%), plastic bag, glass (17%) and bottles (12,2%)  could be linked to the increase in consumption orientated lifestyles and qualitative change in consumer goods in Cameroon. Metal, paper and carton have a high correlation between them and because it is an important to source of income in a developing country like Cameroon, municipal authorities and policy makers must carry out reforms in the waste management sector by creating recycling industries.

Conclusion: Given the increasing population of Yabassi, there is the qualitative and quantitative increase of household waste with the likelihood of it being clandestinely dumped in Nkam River. The results of this study will provide the municipal authorities with the strategies and tools for mitigating such land based pollutants moving into the Nkam River which has always provided basic amenities in terms of drinking water and a source of livelihood for the predominantly agrarian and fishing populations. Some mitigation measures to be adopted should include identification of pollution sources and the obligatory use of plastic bags and refuse bins for the collection and disposal of household waste and containers for the storage of household waste until they are collected by the local authorities. In addition intensive community education on ocean literacy and awareness raising regarding waste management best practices is carried out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smallholder Farmers’ Perception and Responses to Climate Change and Variability in West Shewa, Oromia, Ethiopia

Daniel Assefa Tofu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/43568

Agriculture, on which all the human being depends for their food is under serious threat from the impact of climate change. Primary aim of this study was to assess the smallholder farmers’ perception to climate change and variability, and to investigate the measure they employed in the response to their perceived change and to analyse factors that influence their ability to adapt in Adea Berga district of west shewa zone, Oromiya regional state of Ethiopia. Study was conducted by including 241 smallholders from four local kebeles’1. A two steps process of Heckman model was used to analyse adaptation to climate change, which initially requires farmer’s perception to climate change and then responding to perceived changes through adapting one of appropriate strategies among various options in their hand. The analysis result of selection model shows that age (0.000), access to extension service (0=0.022), access to climate information (0=0.005), soil fertility (0.016) and agro-ecology (0.046) were significantly affected the perception of smallholder farmers to climate change and variability. Similarly, farmers’ adaptation strategies to the response of perceived change in climate was affected significantly by sex (p=0.037), age (0.010), access to extension service (0.011), access to climate information (0.019), wealth status (0.008), involvement in nonfarm income (0.038), soil fertility (0.001), access to credit service (0.000), increase in temperature (0.025), no change in temperature (0.002), decrease in temperature (0.003), change in timing of rainfall (0.000) and experience in the occurrence of hazards (0.014). Policy implications of this study are call for providing unreserved intervention of the policy makers including the local planner to due attention on reducing the factors that significantly influenced the adaptation decision of farmers and building on the adaptive capacity of the smallholder farmers in Adea Berga district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purpose Using Water Quality Index Method in Industrial Area of Dindigul Corporation, Tamilnadu, India

J. Meenalochini, C. Florence Annal

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/44710

The present study comprised to evaluate the status of physico-chemical contaminants in groundwater of Dindigul Corporation, Tamilnadu, India. Thirty ground water samples were collected from different locations in the study area. The physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (CL) and Sulphate (SO4) have been analysed. An attempt has been made to find the suitability of groundwater quality for drinking purpose through water quality index (WQI) method by comparing with the WHO Standard. As the result, all the ground water samples sites fall under exceeding the permissible limit which indicates unsuitable for drinking purpose. The different type of industrial activities is spread over in the study area. Especially the tanneries are found in western part of the study area which caused high mineral contents in the ground water.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Ibadan, Oyo-State

A. S. Alli-Balogun, P. N. Meduna, O. A. Oduah

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/45499

Climate change poses major threat to Nigeria, particularly in the southwest region where Ibadan is a major city. There are several studies conducted at state, regional and national level but a continuous understanding of the knowledge and impact at a local level is required for appropriate interventions. Climate changes are caused either naturally or by human activities while the human activities pose major impact on the changes in climatic conditions thereby causing more harm to the developing countries such as Nigeria. Addressing climate change issues and promoting sustainability in the environment requires tangible progress in implementing mitigation and adaptation measures in the environment. This paper reviews the impacts of climate change on Ibadan and also discusses the adaptation and mitigation measures which must be implemented to prevent future damages. The populace of Ibadan should be continuously informed of the adaptive and mitigation measures so as to prevent future hazardous impact of climate change in their environment.