Open Access Policy Article

Scientific Misrepresentations and the Climate-Science Cartel

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/45380

For thirty years the climate-science cartel has served the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) by providing flawed scientific justification for its political goal of a world governance system. The climate-science cartel incorrectly claims increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide arises primarily from fossil-fuel burning and causes global warming. Actually, atmospheric carbon dioxide increases are driven from the oceans by increasing temperatures, as evidence indicates. The climate-science cartel subscribes to the proposition that aerosol particulates cool the climate, whereas greenhouse gases warm it. This proposition’s reliability is questioned by showing that the rise of the production of particulate-polluting fuels parallels the rise in temperatures during most of the 20th century. Carbon dioxide is not the enemy; air pollution, especially particulate pollution is. Global warming caused by particulate pollution can be reduced by minimising or stopping pollution-causing activities, burning cleaner fuels, and trapping pollutants more efficiently. IPCC models fail to include effects of decades of deliberate atmospheric-modification (geoengineering), a critical element of Earth’s radiation balance which invalidates all climate models based upon Earth’s radiation balance. Air pollution is the leading environmental cause of disease and death worldwide, and it is increasing at an alarming rate. Cited studies indicate that the unspoken atmospheric-modification by particulates, evidenced as coal fly ash, increases global warming and poses risk factors for many diseases, including lung cancer, neurodegenerative disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as forest, bird, bee and insect die-offs, and other dangers to life on Earth. Geoengineering must be quickly and permanently halted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suspended Marine Litter in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: A Case Study of Cross River, QUA Iboe River and Jaja Creek

Bernard B. Babatunde, Arinze O. Uche

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/45448

A study of Ten coastal communities along the Cross River, Qua Iboe River and Jaja Creek (all in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria) was conducted to: Identify and Geo-reference affected navigable channels in Akwa Ibom State; create a map of affected navigable channels in the state; qualitatively and quantitatively characterize floating marine debris in affected channels; Delineate the affected channels; and create awareness among coastal communities on marine litter dangers. The data for average depth revealed that the water body in Essene had the highest depth (13m) while Ufak had the least (3m); average width was highest (850m) at Akpam Nfrugam and Enitan while the least width (250m) was recorded in Ikot Ibritan; and the average flow velocity was highest (1.1 m/s) at Akpam Nfrugam and Essene, least (0.4 m/s) at Edik Ipa and Akuakpa Urang. The result of the characterization of the suspended debris showed that the debris comprised of plastic, nylon, can, foil and “others”. “Others” was made up of mainly nypa palm and unidentified objects. Nylon recorded the highest amount, followed by plastic, can, others and foil recorded the least value across all locations. Average weight of suspended material per square kilometer ranged from the least value of 90,220 kg/km2 at Akpam Nfrugam and the highest value of 199,820 kg/km2 at Jaja creek. Based on 20 tons capacity estimate for dumper trucks, this study location would require between 5-10 dumper trucks to evacuate the suspended debris per square kilometers. In conclusion, navigable channels in the Akwa Ibom are faced with the recalcitrant problem of suspended debris clogging their paths making it difficult for the public to put them to good use while causing harm to aquatic life. It is a clear call for all stakeholders to be cautious of this increasing problem and device means to tackle it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subsurface Imaging of Leachate Plume in Some Communities of Esan North East Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

O. Biose, F. O. Ezomo

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/26508

Groundwater being one of the most valuable drinking water resources is often fresh and cold, since it is filtered through the ground, it is often fresh and cold and usually cleaner than surface water. Unfortunately, the over dependence on groundwater came as a result of lack of pipe borne water. Portable water does not contain chemical substances or microorganisms which could cause hazards to health. However, the quality of groundwater is under intense stress form increasing demand and withdrawer, climate change and anthropogenic activities and this demands consideration because the people of the study area have no means of judging the quality and safety of water themselves.

To image the subsurface in the area, the Wenner-Schlumberger array method utilizing the Petrozenith resistivity metre was employed to delineate leachate plume. The global positioning system device was used to obtain the geographic co-ordinate (longitude and latitude) and altitude in metres of beginning and ending of survey lines. The ZondRes2D and Surfer 11 software were used for the interpretation of data. Groundwater samples were collected in Eguare (January 2013 and December 2014) and Unuwazi (January 2013) and subjected to physical and chemical analysis after which was compared using World Health Organisation (W.H.O) drinking water benchmark.

The result from the laboratory analysis revealed evidence of pollution from physical and chemical sources in Eguare and Unuwazi of Esan North East Local Government Area, Uromi, Edo State. The hand dug well in Unuwazi was not functioning as at time of survey in December 2014 and therefore water sample was not taken. The geoelectric survey delineated leachate plume in Eguare which corroborates with the result of laboratory analysis of groundwater sample taken from the survey location. However, Unuwazi inferred to be clay, lateritic clay and laterite revealed absence of resistivity anomaly due to few numbers of resistivity values within the defining range of (1.5-20) Ωm and (6.5-20) Ωm

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Analysis of Lineaments and Their Tectonic Significance Using Landsat Imagery in Alarasah Area-Southeastern Central Yemen

Hamdi S. Aldharab, Syed Ahmad Ali, Javed Ikbal, Saleh A. Ghareb

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/45638

Remote Sensing data are being used in solving various earth related problems by digital image processing in a computer. Detection of the geological linear features contributes significantly towards the understanding of structural scenario of the area. The purpose of this study was to identify lineaments on Alarasah area, Shabwah Province, Southeastern central Yemen, with the aid of Satellite images. Therefore, automated and manual methods were applied to extract lineaments from Satellite images. In general, automated extraction does not work properly to identify the faults or fault zones present in the area, the problem faced is related to the length and the pattern of the faults. For this reason, it has been decided to use the manually extracted lineaments for further analysis. The manual method is believed to extract the lineaments showing similarity with geological lineaments/faults present in the area. The resultant lineament map is tested with the fault map of the area compiled from the literature and geological map. Good relationship was observed between lineaments extracted from Satellite images and the geological structure in the study area. The final lineament map generated for the study area will help to identify potential zonation of hydrocarbon resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Distribution and Pollution Evaluation in Soils of Dagbala-Atte District, Southwestern Nigeria

M. O. Adepoju

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/44796

Agricultural soils of Dagbala-Atte District in Igarra area of southwestern Nigeria were investigated for the distribution pattern and possible pollution of the following ten heavy metals: Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The investigation was propelled by the fact that soil pollution by heavy metals has serious health implication on animals and human beings via the food chain involving the consumption of crops/vegetables grown on such soils. Forty nine (49) soil samples were collected from 2x3 uniform grids in the district. The aforementioned ten heavy metals were partially extracted from the soils using modified aqua regia digestion method and analyzed by ICP-MS. The analytical results were used to produce geochemical distribution maps for the elements and were also subjected to univariate statistical analysis to determine the mean concentration of the heavy metals in the district. The degree of pollution of these soils by these heavy metals was evaluated by calculating enrichment factors (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The study revealed that Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn are widely distributed in the soils of the district while Ag, As and Hg are fairly widely distributed and Cd has restricted distribution. As, Cr, Cu and Hg have their highest concentrations in the northern part, Co and Ni in the southwestern part, Pb in the eastern part and Zn in the southern part of the district. The computation of the EF, PLI and Igeo for the ten heavy metals yielded results that indicate that all the 49 soils sites are practically unpolluted in the district. Therefore the range of concentration values for the different heavy metals in the study area can serve as baseline environmental data against which the degree of pollution of these heavy metals can be evaluated in future.