Open Access Policy Article

Fundamental Climate Science Error: Concomitant Harm to Humanity and the Environment

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/46113

The climate science community (CSC) has misrepresented climate change, falsely claiming carbon dioxide causes global warming, and developing computer models of Earth’s radiation balance without taking into consideration the tropospheric particulate geoengineering that has been taking place for several decades, thus rendering invalid those models and their interpretations. The CSC misunderstands the science underlying particulate pollution in the troposphere, typically maintaining that aerosolized particulates cool the Earth. As described here, pollution particles, including those jet-sprayed into the region where clouds form, reflect some radiation, but also absorb radiation and become heated. The heat is transferred to the surrounding atmosphere, thus increasing its temperature. The increased atmospheric temperature causes loss of heat-transfer efficiency by convection from Earth’s surface, and concomitant reduction of Earth’s heat loss. Climate science has been corrupted and coerced by military, commercial, and globalist political agendas. Were the environmentally-devastating geoengineering activities to continue unabated, life on Earth will keep progressing towards the first anthropogenic mass extinction. One primal right of all human beings is to breathe clean air that has not been deliberately tainted with toxic substances, a right subverted by covert global geoengineering. Every sovereign nation has the right, and the obligation, to protect the health and welfare of its citizens. The deliberate aerial spraying of pollution particulates constitutes an attack, not only on a nation’s citizens, but an attack on the sovereign nation itself, whether that attack originates from treasonous activities within the sovereign nation or from outside. Here I describe five policy proposals, applicable to all sovereign nations, to end geoengineering attacks on citizens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Dynamics of Forest Cover in Y.S.R District Andhra Pradesh, India

P. John Samuel, Karunakar Virugu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/38961

Forest is a significant industry and a major environmental resource in India which grew at 0.22% annually over 1990-2000, and has grown at the rate of 0.46% per year over 2000-2010, after decades where forest degradation was a matter of serious concern. In 2010, the United Nations estimated India's forest cover to be about 68 million hectares, or 24% of the country's area. In 2013, Forest Survey of India indicated the forest cover increased to 69.8 million hectares by 2012 as per satellite data. India is the world's largest consumer of fuel-wood, as 80% of rural people and 48% of urban people; use fuel-wood. Unless India makes major, rapid and sustained effort to expand electricity generation and power plants, India will continue to meet their energy needs through the unsustainable destruction of forests and fuel wood consumption. India's dependence on fuel-wood and forestry products as a primary energy source is not only environmentally unsustainable; it is a primary cause of India's near-permanent haze and air pollution.The forest or natural vegetation is indeed a priority in land protection measures for producing food, preserving biodiversity and facilitating the natural management of water systems. The underlying biophysical and anthropogenic causes of land degradation are multiple and overlapping. To effectively tackle desertification, land degradation and drought conditions should be addressed and instruments designed to incentivise the sustainable management of lands. The forest cover of YSR district of Andhra Pradesh is no exception. Different forest types have been analysed using Remote Sensing Satellite data with non-spatial data of forest information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Analysis of the Distribution of Mangrove Species along the Shoreline in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Robert Etim Ekpenyong, Imoh Ukpong, Sola Olajide, Idongesit Etuk, Mbotidem Ebong, Edidiong Robert Etim

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/45953

Mangrove forest is an ecosystem that offers many goods and services which can sustain mankind for eternity. Unfortunately, in Akwa Ibom State, this very important ecosystem is declining because of deforestation arising from over exploitation and development activities in the area.

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of mangrove species along the shoreline in Akwa Ibom State using a geospatial approach.

Methodology: Remote sensing, Global Positioning System and Geographical Information Systems techniques were used to determine, map and analyse the locations and distribution of mangrove forest in the area.

Results: The results of the study revealed that most mature stands of the different mangrove species, mainly A. Africana and R. racemosa occur on the braided islands found within the Cross River estuary in Okobo Local Government Area and along the Kwa Iboe Creek in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area.

Conclusion: This study has shown how to map and analyze mangrove at the species level using geospatial technologies. It revealed the actual locations of the two dominant species of mangrove found along the Nigerian shoreline in Akwa Ibom State. With this approach, it is possible to monitor and manage mangrove ecosystem for sustainable goods and service provision, poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drought Frequency and Persistence in the Upper River Tana Basin in Kenya

Isaiah A. Nyandega, George O. Krhoda

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/45355

Drought is an abnormal low rainfall condition over an extended period of time in the Upper River Tana basin in Kenya as distinct from aridity, which is a condition of spatial low average moisture availability, is the focal area of study. This study evaluated drought frequency and its persistence using local farmer's information, daily rainfall data and mean river discharges. The drought was analyzed using data on agricultural activities, daily rainfall and mean daily discharges. The data analysed using a number of tools and these were cross-tabulation, frequency analysis, Cramer’s V and Phi statistics, Control chart, and Time Series techniques in order to determine drought periods, frequency and persistence. The results indicate that drought is a meteorological phenomenon of Upper River Tana basin hydro-climate conditions as well as its socio-economic set up. The definition of drought and therefore meanings of drought, however, vary by agro-climatic zones, socio-economic activities, rainfall conditions, and hydrological characteristics. The frequency of drought in all cases tends not to have a definite pattern and therefore less predictable while persistence tends to be restricted to a water year. Most drought episodes identified are widespread and thus confirming the fact that drought is an issue in the study area. Drought episodes tend to occur at the beginning and at the end of a decadal period and in some cases tend to portray persistence beyond the calendar year but not beyond a water year. These results have implications for planning farming activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Finite Strain Analysis of Xenoliths and Phenocrysts in Akure Granitoids, Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

A. J. Adewumi, A. F. Oladoyin, A. Oyebamiji, A. O. Falade, A. A. Edema, I. S. Emumejakpor

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/45944

Aim: This study was carried out to measure the strain conditions in the Akure granitiods with a goal to understand the impact of the pan-African orogenic cycle on this granitic body that extends from Ore through Akure to Ado-Ekiti axis.

Methods: Lengths, strike, and dips of the principal stress directions, σ12 and σ3 in 101 xenoliths and 887 phenocrysts were measured. The length of the principal axes were measured using a centimeter rule while the strike and dip of xenoliths and trends of phenocrysts were measured using a compass clinometers. The extent of elongation and shortening, stretch and quadratic elongations were also determined. The Flinn’s, logarithmic Flinn’s and the Hsu diagrams were employed to understand the impact of the tectonism on rocks in the area. A total of 101 xenoliths and 887 phenocrysts were measured on the field. The lengths and trends of the maximum, intermediate and minimum directions were measured. 

Results: The data obtained from the field analysis revealed that the maximum strain direction trends from NE-SW which corresponds to the direction of the stress field of the Pan-African orogeny. The original shape of these geological bodies ranges between 14.38 and 36.83 cm. Furthermore, the results showed that there is a correlation between the length and width of the xenoliths which confirms that they must have been acted upon by tectonic activity. The study further revealed that the xenoliths and phenocrysts trend in the NE-SW and NW-SE directions which correspond to the principal directions of the Pan-African Orogeny. The elongation of xenoliths in the maximum, intermediate and minimum strain directions ranges between 1.05 and 37.38, -1.94 and -1.14 and -3.15 and -0.20 respectively. The quadratic elongation is between 1.90 and 2.66 for the maximum strain direction while it ranges between 0.39 and 0.60 in the intermediate strain direction. In minimum strain direction, quadratic elongation ranges between 0.51 and 0.61. Flinn’s plot revealed that 100% of the xenoliths were strained by tectonism while logarithmic Flinn’s and Hsu plots revealed that 97% and 3% of the xenoliths were deformed by constrictional and flattened strain respectively.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the pan-African orogeny played a significant role in deforming the xenoliths in the porphyritic granite. The investigation further revealed that the stress that acted on the Akure granitoids produced a constrictional change in most of the xenoliths while only a few of them were flattened.