Many observers conceptualize the environment-poverty link as “downward spiral,” with population growth and social exclusion leading to environmental deterioration. However, recent micro and small scale existential study challenges this model, showing striking heterogeneity in natural resource management by the poor, including display of their success in adapting to environmental change and the efficacy of policies in affecting outcomes. Using both conceptual and empirical material, this article aims to assess the poverty-environment relationship. I will specifically examine criticisms of the “poverty causes environmental degradation” approach, arguing that recent scholarly work on the complex web of factors involved in the poverty-environment nexus provides a more useful toolkit for assessing the poverty-environment link in local places. I will conclude by analyzing how policies can more effectively address the interrelationship between poverty and environmental degradation, highlighting promising areas of impact.
This study aims to analyze impacts of rainfall dynamic on the water resources (surface water and groundwater) of N'zi watershed in Côte d'Ivoire. It justifies use of monthly average climatological data (rainfall, temperature) and hydrometric data of the watershed. The methodology is to interpolate by kriging rainfall, to highlight relationship between the spatial variability of rainfall and the surface water flow, and to evaluate groundwater recharge of fractured aquifers in the watershed. At the end of the study, it appears that the ten-year average rainfall of the N'zi watershed has decreased significantly. From 1233 mm during the decade 1951-1960, it lowered to 1074 mm during the decade 1991-2000. During the decades 1961-1970, 1971-1980 and 1981-1990, average rainfall is estimated at 1213 mm, 1068 mm and 1050 mm, respectively. From a spatial point of view, decrease in rainfall intensity was strongly felt in the central and northern localities, as in those located in the south of the watershed. Evolution of stream flow and rainfall is similar in the upper and middle N'zi, with maximum flow period in september corresponding mainly to the period of high rainfall. However, two peaks of different amplitude and a slight shift are observed between the peaks of rain and those of flow mainly in low N'zi. Water quantity streamed in the N’zi watershed during the period of 1972 to 2000 is of 40.7 mm. Water quantity infiltrated to reload aquifers of the watershed is evaluated to 47.6 mm, that is to say a volume of water infiltrated of approximately 1.7 109 m3.
This study examined the spatial growth and resident satisfaction with urban infrastructural development in Idah. Mixed research method were adopted, Satellite imagery were utilized in evaluating spatial growth that have occurred within the data set periods, the classified data were processed using ARC GIS (version 10.2) and Idrisi Software. Also, Field observations and questionnaire was employed for gathering requisite data on resident satisfaction with infrastructural development. Random sampling was used in questionnaire administration, a total of 215 questionnaires were administered and analyzed using frequency and percentages. The results showed that in 1987, farmland occupied 15.7 km2; built-up 9.5km2; bare surface occupied 4.5 km2 and vegetation occupied 14.1 km2, while water body occupied 0.6km2 of the total land area, however, in 2016, the farmland reduced due to urban growth, the farm land which was occupying 15.7 KM2 in 1987 now reduced to 6.8 km2; built-up increased from 9.5 km2 to 16.3 km2. On the level of satisfaction on electricity supply, the study revealed that majority (81.4%) of the respondents are dissatisfied with the service of the Abuja electricity distribution company while 18.6% are satisfied with their services. The study further revealed that majority (92.1%) of the respondents are dissatisfied with water supply and sanitary service in the town.
A total of five borehole samples were collected from five towns in Owerri metropolis, South-eastern Nigeria and subjected to physio-chemical analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and other standard equipment with the aim of characterizing and analysing the groundwater quality indicators. These quality indicators are namely: pH, temperature, total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, Fe2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Cr2+. With the aid of geochemical diagrams acquired using Aquachem 2014.2, we classified the groundwater samples into their respective hydrogeochemical facies, identified their relative similarity and demonstrated the irrigability of the groundwater. The results showed that the groundwater quality indicators occur in the groundwater in amounts that fall within their respective permissible limits as set by World Health Organization (WHO) Drinking Water Standard, and therefore ascertained the groundwater portable and suitable for drinking. The pH of the groundwater has a mean value of 6.7 with a standard deviation of 0.26. The relative abundance of the majority of cations follows this sequence - Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+, while that of the anions follow this sequence - HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > NO3-. Heavy metals constituents of the groundwater follow this order of relative abundance - Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Mn2+ > Cu2+ > Cr2+ > Pb2+. Three hydrogeochemical facies were identified in the area and they are: the Na+—Cl- water type, the Mixed Ca2+-Na+-HCO3- water type and the Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3- water type. Great similarities were identified between the geochemical composition of the samples and they are all evidently suitable for irrigation purposes. The TDS level and concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- demonstrated the freshness and softness of the groundwater, with no laxative effects. From series of computations and plots, silicate weathering and seawater intrusion were deduced to be the dominant factors controlling the groundwater chemistry, though there is evidence of poor rock dissolution – immature water-rock equilibrium.
This study aims to investigate the soil erosion from selected watershed from Dehradun area having hilly terrain and human’s development activities The remote sensing based model was decided to perform the estimations and assessment of soil eroded from watershed. The Nun river watershed was selected for study. From the estimated quantity of soil eroded we can predict the risk due degraded soil in terms of decreasing crop productivity. The present study assists to decide the optimum land use for specific purpose at the Nun watershed in Deharadun, Uttarakhand. The major objective of the study is to assess the soil erosion risk in the study area.