Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Land Use Land Cover on the Flood Plain of Bhagirathi River, Purba Bardhaman District, West Bengal, India

Sourav Misra, Tuhin Roy

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i230079

Aims: Human interference is the most important factor to change the LULC pattern over the earth surface. Land cover means to the physical parameters and land use means the cultural components. The present study associated with the changes in land uses a land cover pattern for the simultaneous changes of geomorphic features as well as the changes in the course of the river. This work is mainly going to summarize the changing behavior of land use land cover areas of a river bank in several decades.

Place and duration of the Study: The research area traced in between 24°00’00’’N to 23°16’15’’N and 88°12’00’’E to 88°28’00’’E, which is situated in the eastern part of Purba Bardhaman District, West Bengal.

Methodology: Entire study made by GIS techniques through the uses of topographical sheet (SOI-1960, Scale 1:50,000) and Satellite data (2002, 2008 & 2016). Through the help of superimposition technique the changes of river course have been identified which is directly affecting the LULC pattern of the entire flood plain.

Result: The study reveals that the entire area changes their LULC pattern which reflects the entire flood plain.

Conclusion: Due to the high interference of human physical elements as well as water bodies, sand bar, fallow lands are being decreased in past decades, whereas settlement patches are continuously growing up. It means for the necessity of human livelihood human always have been modifying the land in different ways.

Open Access Original Research Article

Facies Analysis and Depositoinal Environment of D-3 Reservoir Sands Vin Field, Eastern Niger Delta

Onyewuchi, Chinedu Vin, Minapuye, I. Odigi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i230080

Facies analysis and depositional environment identification of the Vin field was evaluated through the integration and comparison of results from wireline logs, core analysis, seismic data, ditch cutting samples and petrophysical parameters. Well log suites from 22 wells comprising gamma ray, resistivity, neutron, density, seismic data, and ditch cutting samples were obtained and analyzed. Prediction of depositional environment was made through the usage of wireline log shapes of facies combined with result from cores and ditch cuttings sample description. The aims of this study were to identify the facies and depositional environments of the D-3 reservoir sand in the Vin field. Two sets of correlations were made on the E-W trend to validate the reservoir top and base while the isopach map was used to establish the reservoir continuity. Facies analysis was carried out to identify the various depositional environments. The result showed that the reservoir is an elongate , four way dip closed roll over anticline associated with an E-W trending growth fault and contains two structural high separated by a saddle. The offshore bar unit is an elongate sand body with length: width ratio of >3:1 and is aligned parallel to the coast-line. Analysis of the gamma ray logs indicated that four log facies were recognized in all the wells used for the study. These include: Funnel-shaped (coarsening upward sequences), bell-shaped or fining upward sequences, the bow shape and irregular shape. Based on these categories of facies, the depositional environments were interpreted as deltaic distributaries, regressive barrier bars, reworked offshore bars and shallow marine. Analysis of the wireline logs and their core/ditch cuttings description has led to the conclusion that the reservoir sandstones of the Agbada Formation in the Vin field of the eastern Niger Delta is predominantly marine deltaic sequence, strongly influenced by clastic output from the Niger Delta. Deposition occurred in a variety of littoral and neritic environment ranging from barrier sand complex to fully marine outer shelf mudstones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Direct, Diffuse and Global Solar Radiations over Varanasi at Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

Pramod Kumar Yadava, Manoj K. Srivastava, Priyanshu Gupta, Rajeev K. Singh, Divya Prakash Yadav, Sunita Verma

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i230081

The paper presents the seasonal solar radiations over Varanasi (25°20' N, 83° 00' E 81.1m altitude) in Eastern Uttar Pradesh (UP) in India. An investigation on solar radiation over Varanasi station, India is carried out by using the five years (2010-2014) recorded direct, diffuse, and global radiations data obtained from the radiation unit installed by India Meteorological Department (IMD) at Banaras Hindu University (BHU) campus. Analyses of winter (December, January, and February), summer (March, April, and May), monsoon season (June, July, August, September), and post monsoon (October, November) period shows that diffuse solar radiation is maximum (~1.42 MJ/m2) during monsoon season in 2012 at 12:00 IST and global solar radiation is maximum (~2.9 MJ/m2) during summer season in 2012 at 13:00 IST. The results of solar radiation are further analyzed with the aerosols optical depth over Varanasi. The increase in diffuse radiation are found to be well correlated (R= 0.67) with higher values of aerosols optical depth during summer over Varanasi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Petrology and Structural Features of Tsiga and its Environs Northwestern Nigeria

A. A. Unimke, M. S. Suleiman, N. Egesi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i230083

The major rock types mapped in the Tsiga area NW Nigeria, include gneisses and granites associated with minor rocks such as xenoliths and some structural features including foliation, joints, faults and veins (quartz and pegmatite).The mineralogy includes feldspar (orthoclase and plagioclase), quartz, biotite and some accessory minerals. These rock types and the associated structural features have their trends in N-S direction. The structural analysis of joints on the granites of the study area shows that the joints have a trend of NNE-SSW. The joints on the gneisses have a trend of NE-SW. In terms of age relationships of the rocks, gneisses are older than the granites based on deformed features. The gneisses probably originated from sediments, para-gneisses. The granites must have resulted from magma intrusion. The structures in the study area suggests the imprint of the Pan-African Orogeny, as indicated by the structural analysis of fractures. The major rivers in the study area include Yali and Moryaji with their tributaries which formed a dendritic drainage pattern, and are structurally controlled. Surface water occurs during the raining season and underground water are available in the area, occurring in shallow pit dug along the stream and river channels, and the fractured crystalline aquifer. The economic potentials in the area includes; rock aggregates, dimension stone, lateritic soil and alluvium deposits which are used for different purposes and include building houses and construction of roads and bridges and probably rare earth elements at the contact zones between the igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of Fracture Networks of the Black Volta Catchment in Côte D’ivoire

Armel. K. Kouame, Marc Youan Ta, O. Zéphir De Lasme, Derving Baka, Carine. A. M. Njeugeut, Fernand K. Kouame

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i230082

A good knowledge of fracturing leads to a better exploitation of the groundwater of the areas in crystalline basement. This study area of interests the catchment of Black Volta area in north eastern Côte d’Ivoire. Its aims to characterize the fracture networks of the catchment of Black Volta. Various methods were used notably mapping using satellite image processing, statistical and geostatistical analysis.

The results showed that fracturing of Black Volta area is dense and homogeneous. Statistical analysis of geometric parameter of the fracturing such as fracture lengths and spacing are distributed respectively according to power law and gamma law. The deployment of the fracturing in this area is organized and the experimental variogram is characterized by two nested elementary structures. The practical ranges of these two elementary variograms are respectively 34, 5 km to 60 km. Results indicate that the fracturing of Black Volta area reached a stage of advanced development and is complex. Fracturing of Black Volta area is now well known and the groundwater modeling can be undertaking.