Open Access Policy Article

Displacement versus Co-existence in Human-Wildlife Conflict Zones: An Overview

Jeetesh Rai

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i430093

Wildlife presents both a threat and a resource to humans. Protected areas offer the best protection for conserving biodiversity and ecosystems worldwide. Despite more than half protected areas around the world being established on indigenous land natives are generally prohibited official access. However, protected areas are suffering from encroachment of surrounding population and almost half of all protected areas are heavily used for agriculture. Those in the tropics especially are experiencing serious and increasing degradation from poor management of development projects, agricultural encroachment, and illegal resource use. As a result, human-wildlife conflict is a significant and growing problem around the world. The literature reviewed for this paper has been notable for its polarised assessment of the human-wildlife conflict. On one side are the biological sciences, devoted to understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity loss and its consequences for conservation. On the other side are the social scientists, concerned with livelihood issues in and outside protected areas. Cernea and Schmidt-Soltau claim that these two groups have had an unequal influence on policy, with biological sciences having devoted a “broader, deeper and more systematic research effort than the social sciences” [1:3]. To avoid some of the bias towards biological sciences present in the literature, this paper will examine the underlying conditions required for co-existence. As such, I developed the ‘human-wildlife interaction model’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Biomass and Leaf Area Index in the Western Ghats Forest Ecosystem by the Integrated Analysis of Hyperspectral Data and Space Borne LiDAR Data

Indu Indirabai, M. V. Harindranathan Nair, Jaishanker R. Nair, Rama Rao Nidamanuri

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i430090

The Western Ghats regions of India are characterised by highly complex and biodiverse forest ecosystem with heterogeneous tree species. The integration of LiDAR data with multispectral remote sensing has limitations in the case of spectral information abundance. The objective of this study was to undertake biophysical characterisation in the Western Ghats regions of India by the integration of GLAS ICESat data and AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral data. The methodology of the study includes pre-processing of the hyperspectral and ICESat GLAS data followed by the integration of the two data sets based on pixel based fusion strategy in order to estimate the biophysical parameters of forests. Biomass was estimated by Support Vector Regression method. The structural characteristics extracted from the LiDAR data are integrated with spectral characteristics from the AVIRIS NG imagery based on the pixel level so that biophysical characteristics including canopy height, biomass, Leaf Area Index are estimated. The integrated product on further analysis revealed the applicability of this approach to extract more spectral information and forest parameters. The key findings of the study include biophysical parameters both structural as well as abundant spectral information can be retrieved successfully by the methodology used which have strong correlation with the in situ measurements. The study concluded that biophysical parameters including Leaf Area Index, biomass and canopy height can be effectively estimated by the integration of AVIRIS-NG imagery and GLAS data, which cannot be possible when used independently. It is recommended to have continuous retrieval of LiDAR foot prints instead of discrete, to make modelling of the biophysical parameters a little more effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Atmospheric Convection in Global Warming

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i430091

Aims: Geophysical convection calculations can potentially obscure details necessary to understand convective-heat-transfer changes caused by changes in the adverse temperature gradient. The objective is to ascertain the functional relationship between adverse temperature gradient and convection efficiency.

Methodology: A classroom-demonstration experiment was conducted to illustrate the principle that convection efficiency is a direct function of the adverse temperature gradient.

Results: Application of this principle to climate science has profound implications for global warming. A brief period of global warming during World War ll followed by rapid global cooling afterward is attributable, not to carbon dioxide, but to particulate pollution and its generalization to post-1950 global warming. Rather than simply blocking sunlight and causing global cooling, aerosol particles are radiation absorbers that rapidly transfer heat to the surrounding atmosphere, raising its temperature relative to atmospheric temperature at Earth’s surface. Thus the reduction of the adverse temperature gradient between the upper troposphere and the surface reduces atmospheric convection and concomitantly reduces convection-driven surface heat loss, causing global warming, heating the oceans, and reducing CO2 solubility and releasing dissolved CO2 to the atmosphere.

Conclusions: Increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, rather than causing global warming, are symptomatic of particulate-pollution-caused global warming. The Anthropocene idea cannot be justified by anthropogenic CO2. Instead the Anthropocene is better characterized by anthropogenic particulate pollution. A drastic reduction in particulate-pollutant emissions will be followed by a rapid and drastic reduction in global warming, as tropospheric pollution-particulates fall to ground in days to weeks, thus increasing atmospheric convection efficiency and potentially providing a radical solution to the global climate crisis. Moreover, reduction of particulate-pollution, the greatest environmental health-threat, will potentially save millions of lives and reduce the suffering of many more.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Spatial Analysis of Political Participation in Telangana State, India

Karunakar Virugu, Ashok Kumar Lonavath

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i430092

Telangana state is a newly formed state in India. It is the 29th state and was formed on 2nd June, 2014. It was part of erstwhile Andhra Pradesh state. The lack of political participation from the Telangana regions in state of Andhra Pradesh was the major cause for demanding separate state hood for Telangana. The Geopolitical analysis expresses that the heads of the political parties and governing portfolios was only from Rayalaseema and Andhra region. The regional disparities were one of the major causes of discrimination among the regions. It is worthwhile to mention the political dynamics within Telangana and give the scenario of political participation among different regions of Telangana. The study of Zilla Parishad elections (ZP) is a micro-level political participation of people in Telangana as with Panchayat Raj elections in different states of India.

Geographical Information System (GIS) was employed to analyse the spatial patterns of Geopolitical participation of people in ZP elections. 

Panchayat Raj elections were held 4 times in Telangana, when it was part of erstwhile Andhra Pradesh. The research paper analyse the political dynamics of Panchayat Raj as democracy of ZPTC’s. There are 443 ZPTC’s in Telangana and the three major political parties like Indian National Congress (INC), Telugu Desam Party (TDP) and Telangana Rastra Samiti (TRS) plays the significant role in the Geo-politics of Telangana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of the Temporal Change in Carbon Stock of Muthupet Mangroves in Tamil Nadu Using Remote Sensing Techniques

K. Narmada, K. Annaidasan

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v19i430096

Aim: To study the carbon storage potential of Muthupet mangroves in Tamil Nadu using Remote sensing techniques.

Place and Duration: The study is carried out in Muthupet Mangroves for the years 2000, 2010 and 2017.

Methodology: In this study the remote sensing images were processed using the ERDAS and ArcGIS software and the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) has also been applied to estimate the quantity of carbon sequestration capability for the Avicennia marina mangrove growing in the Muthupet region for the period 2000-2017. The formula proposed by Lai [10] was used to calculate the carbon stock using geospatial techniques.

Results: The results show that the mangroves in Muthupet region has NDVI values between -0.671 and 0.398 in 2000, -0.93 and 0.621 in 2010 and -0.66 and 0.398 in 2017. The observation indicates the reliability and validity of the aviation remote sensing with high resolution and with near red spectrum experimented in this research for estimating the the Avicennia marina (Forsk.) mangrove growing in this region. The estimated quantity of carbon di oxide sequestrated by the mangrove was about 1475.642 Mg/Ha in 2000, 3646.312 Mg/Ha in 2010 and 1677.72 Mg/Ha in 2017.

Conclusion: The capacity of the Avicennia marina growing in Muthupet region to sequestrate carbon show that it has a great potential for development and implementation. The results obtained in this research can be used as a basis for policy makers, conservationists, regional planners, and researchers to deal with future development of cities and their surroundings in regions of highly ecological and environmental sensitivity. Thus the finding shows that wetlands are an important ecological boon as it helps to control the impact of climate change in many different ways.