Open Access Short Research Article

Livelihood Vulnerability of Fishery-based Communities in Context of Climate Change: Insights From and Around Selective Fishing Grounds of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal

Aparupa Sinha, Anupam Das

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i130094

The 4th Assessment Reports prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 reported serious concerns which directly affect the livelihoods of millions of coastal habitants and fishing communities. This study mainly concentrates on the awareness regarding the climate variability and vulnerability exposed by climate change on the marine fishing communities based on their Socio-Demographic Profile, Livelihood strategies, Social Networks, Health, Water, Natural disasters and Climate Variability and Knowledge and Skills; which are divided into three main components of vulnerability (IPCC): Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity. Here, we have chosen the three major functioning fishing harbours of this district are Lakshmipur Abad of Namkhana, Kalinagar of Kakdwip and Sultanpur of Diamond Harbour with their respective fish landing centers. The primary data used is based on a purposive sampling survey of 150 household of fishing communities and the secondary data about recent climate variability and extreme events was collected from official records. This study used the participatory tools and methods in order to generate qualitative and quantitative information about climate change impacts and community based adaptation strategies to climate change.

The study reveals that the most important climate-related elements of exposure are the storms and cyclones. We have also found that studied villages are highly populated and competing for limited resources, furthermore lack of economic opportunities like agriculture in coastal areas making these communities already vulnerable along within higher sensitivity and lower adaptive capacity combine to create higher vulnerability.

Open Access Policy Article

Why are Narratives that Place the Blame for Deforestation on the Rural Poor so Pervasive and so Persistent?

Jeetesh Rai

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i130099

Deforestation is a prominent issue in the call for global environmental sustainability whose status transcends the realm of environmental studies and extends to the broader domains of public policy and popular concern. Deforestation issues are complex, and narratives provide the simple explanations needed by policymakers and the public. One of the most common narratives explaining deforestation places the blame on the rural poor. These narratives make facile connections between the poor who depend on the forests for their livelihood and the environmental degradation which is taking place in their immediate vicinity. They unite two major problems in a neat hermeneutic circle: the rural poor are caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and environmental degradation, where they are both the victims and the perpetrators. While rural poverty and deforestation are closely connected, the relationship is a complex one - contrary to what such simple narratives lead us to believe - and the causes of deforestation remain unclear. This article discusses the causes that explain why are narratives that place the blame for deforestation on the rural poor so pervasive and so persistent?

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Geothermal Gradient and Heat Flow for Determination of Geothermal Energy Sources in Monguno Area of Northeastern Nigeria

B. C. Udochukwu, M. Akiishi, A. A. Tyovenda

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i130095

The aeromagnetic data of Monguno area northeastern Nigeria have been used to estimate Curie point depth, geothermal gradients and heat flow using spectral analysis. These geothermal parameters were subsequently employed to identify areas of geothermal resources. First order polynomial fitting was applied in Regional-residual separation. The Curie point depth obtained in this area ranges from 10.318 to 24.476 km with an average of 13.387 km, the geothermal gradient of the area varies from 23.697 to 56.212°C /km, with an average of 46.195°C /km, while the heat flow ranges from 59.242 to 136.176 mWm-2, with an average value of about 112.364 mWm-2. It was also observed that the deepest Curie depth in the area is identified in the south, while the shallow depth is located in the northeast and spread toward the southwest. On the other hand, the highest geothermal gradient in the area is identified in the northern part of Moguno, while in the south,                    the lowest, geothermal gradient is located. The highest heat flow in the area is seen in the south-west and north-east, while the lowest heat flow is observed in the south. The high heat flow and geothermal gradient in the area show that geothermal energy could be found in Monguno region of the northeastern Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

GIS-Based Approach in Drainage Morphometric Analysis of Bharathapuzha River Basin, India

M. Dhanusree, G. Bhaskaran

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i130097

Aims: The paper aims to study about the river basin morphometry namely the physical, linear and aerial parameters for the basin.

Study Design: The Study has been carried out with the help of Geospatial techniques and statistical formulas.

Place and Duration of Study: Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India between January 2018 to July 2018.

Methodology: The Study of River morphometry of Bharathapuzha River basin has been done with the help of SRTM satellite data. The downloaded data has been analyzed with the help of ARC GIS Software. The morphometric analysis has been carried out by dividing the basin into nine watersheds based on Water shed Atlas of India Prepared by Soil and Land Use board of           India. Relief, Linear and areal parameters of the basin is calculated with the help of statistical formulas.

Results: Based on the analysis it is noted that there is not much difference in morphometric values except in some watersheds. Watershed number 5A2B5, 5A2B6 and 5A2B7 has highest drainage density, stream frequency, relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, stream length ratio and lowest bifurcation ratio. These watersheds are characterized by highest surface runoff and erosion. The values of form factor, circulatory ratio and elongation ratio suggests that most of the watersheds are elongated and has high basin relief. The maximum stream order frequency is observed in case of first order streams and then for second order streams. Hence it is noted that there is decrease in stream frequency as stream order increases.

Conclusion: The mean bifurcation ratio of the Bharathapuza basin is 1.52 which indicates the whole basin is less effected by structural control. This present study is valuable for the erosion control, watershed management, land and water resource planning and future prospective related to runoff study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foraminiferal Assemblage from the Karai Shale, Uttattur Group, Southern India

L. Harini, R. Venkatachalapathy

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i130098

To study the foraminiferal assemblage from the Karai shale, one hundred and nineteen surface sediment samples were collected systematically. The collected samples were processed using standard micropaleontological techniques. Ninety- eight species of well - preserved foraminifera were obtained from the samples. Of the ninety-eight species, eighty-nine were benthic foraminifera and nine were planktic foraminifera. The specific identification of the foraminifera was done after comparing them with those described and illustrated by various workers from the Cretaceous of Southern India. The age of the samples was assigned as Albian based on the presence of planktic foraminiferal species viz. Hedbergella delrioensis, Hedbergella planispira, Praeglobotruncana delrioensis, Praeglobotruncana stephani, Planomalina buxtorfi and Thalmanninella balernaensis.