Open Access Policy Article

Colonial History and Geography have been the Main Determinants of Africa’s Poor Economic Growth: An Experience of Lost Decades (1980-2000)

Jeetesh Rai

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i230102

Many states in Africa have experienced particularly painful growth trajectories and transitions to post-independence democracy. In particular many writers have noted the ‘lost decades’ for democratic consolidation and economic growth in Africa between 1980 and 2000. Current perceptions of Africa are framed by high levels of absolute poverty and low levels of life expectancy, and significant national debt burdens. Many countries have experienced extended periods of devastating political and military conflict, as well as unsuccessful attempts with Marxist- Leninist and free market economic policy, further exacerbating the painful nature of post-independence development. The development paths of many African countries have also been significantly conditioned by regional militarism as well as international geopolitical developments, furthering conflict and development trauma. This paper therefore seeks to identify some of the root causes of the poor economic growth that many post-independence African nations have experienced, specifically between 1980 to 2000. It argues that colonial (and neo-colonial) history and geography have played a significant role in Africa’s lagging growth rate and peripheral regional status in a hostile and competitive global economy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coastal Vulnerability Mapping using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Tuticorin Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

B. Santhosh Kumar, A. Balukkarasu, K. Tamilarasan

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i230100

The southern part of the Indian peninsula of Tamil Nadu coast is potentially more vulnerable to hazards. This research aims to classify the coastal vulnerable zones of the Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu using Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). The multi-spectral satellite data of Landsat series was used for shoreline change analysis from 1978 to 2017. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) software extension was used to calculate the shoreline rate-of-change statistics from multiple historic shoreline positions developed by the United States Geological Survey. The study reveals significant erosion and accretion demarcated based on DSAS computed values along the coastal stretch. The six physical variables characterizing the vulnerability of the coast, including the geomorphology, shoreline change rate (m/yr), coastal slope (deg), relative sea-level change (mm/yr), mean wave height (m) and mean tide range (m). The geomorphology map was created using Landsat OLI satellite data in 1: 50,000 scale. The Shoreline change rate was calculated using temporal satellite data. Based on the CVI value, low vulnerable to very high vulnerable areas were identified. Besides, Vembar, Periyasamypuram, Vaippar, Kallurni, Pattanamarudur areas were identified in erosion. The Muttayyapuram coast has accretion by the consequence of sediment transport from the Thamiraparani estuary. The coastal zones are highly fragile for dynamic nature and resource. The sources of anthropogenic and natural processes are accelerating the erosion and accretion along the coast. Hence the vulnerability map prepared for the southeast coast of India and it can be most helpful for stakeholders and future coastal disaster mitigation and management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cement Dust on Physico-chemical Properties of Soils around a Cement Factory in Bagalkot, Karnataka, India

Sukumar A. Kokatnur, V. B. Saviramath

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i230103

Aims: To study the physicochemical properties of soil around the cement factory, to examine the effect of the industrial dust on the soil properties and to analyse the relation between the proportion of pollutants and the distance from the cement factory.

Study Design: Were used to analyse the relationship between soil samples at four different locations within the study area. Statistical methods such as; percentage, graph and Pearson correlation method.

Place and Duration of Study: For this study soil samples were collected around J k cement factory near Muddhapura of Mudhol Taluk of Bagalkot district in the pre monsoon period at four directions. Samples were analysed using titrant method, flame photometer method, oslen method to determine physicochemical properties. Pearson correlation method was used to analyse the relation between concentration of different elements in the soil samples and distances in four directions.

Results: From detailed analysis it was observed that there was increase in concentration of major elements, such as P, Ca, and Mg. However, there are some exceptions such as OC, N, S, Na, Zn, and Fe whose concentration in the soil samples increase with increase in distances in all directions. Since their correlation with distance is positive and significant since the P-value is less than 0.05. 

Conclusion: In the present study, it has been established that the physicochemical properties of the soils around the factory have been changed due to the dust deposition as it is adversely affecting the composition soils. This in turn affected the concentration of nutrients required for plants growth. Furthermore, it may become hazardous to soil, flora and fauna.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Radar Imagery to Tectonic, Structural and Geological Studies in Afikpo Basin, Southeastern Benue Trough, Nigeria

Minapuye Isaac Odigi, Prince Suka Momta

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i230104

Radar imagery was used to identify geological features and the production of geological maps of the Afikpo basin. The essence of this study was to delineate significant geological and geomorphological features that have not been imaged by the traditional ground field mapping. The application of Radar imagery technique will be relevant to the discovery of subsurface structures that will aid the accumulation or concentration of certain economic minerals or natural resources. It will enhance the identification of significant geological information such as lineaments, geologic structures, drainages, etc, that will serve as a guide to the actual ground field work investigation. Results from radar imageries revealed drainage pattern, major geomorphological units, mega lithostratigraphic units, lineaments and structures. The geology of Afikpo basin consist of Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks are recognizable; the highly deformed Cretaceous rocks are characterized by regional lineaments. Some of the rivers are aligned along the regional lineaments. The NW-SE and NE-SW lineaments truncate one another, suggesting different ages for the lineament groups. A few sinistral tensional movements occur in the eastern sector of the basin.  The major folds in the Afikpo basin have NE-SW and NW-SE trends, and occur as anticlines and synclines. The basement structuring and basin framework suggest a tectonic setting in the southeastern Benue Trough resulting from the Early Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and interpolate movement in Africa. From the evidence currently available we may conclude that the post Santonian Afikpo basin falls within the transtenstional basin categories associated with transform faults. The regional tectonics interpreted from the radar imageries are likely hydrocarbon related structural features.