Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Analysis of Groundwater Quality in Ludhiana, Punjab (India)

Dapinder Deep Singh, Mukta Sharma, Sashikanta Sahoo, Siby John

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i330105

This paper presents a geospatial analysis of the groundwater quality of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The groundwater samples were collected from 99 locations using grid based sampling procedure and analysed for parameters viz. pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), fluoride (F-), chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO24-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Sampling was done during both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Water quality index (WQI) was used to represent the groundwater quality of the study area. The WQI coupled with the spatial maps indicated that merely (1%) of the total study area had good groundwater quality and the rest of the study area fell under poor, very poor and unsuitable for drinking purpose. The geographical information system (GIS) based groundwater quality mapping presented in this paper could be a potential tool for groundwater quality management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Analysis of River Donga Watershed in Taraba State Using Remeote Sensing and Gis Techniques

Adelalu, Temitope Gabriel, Yusuf, Mohammed Bakoji, Ibrahim Abdullahi, Idakwo Victor Iko-Ojo

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i330106

As climate change infiltrate and influence every sphere of the globe, the continuous study of the drainage features and assessment of the drainage basin as a fundamental geomorphic unit in water resources development and management cannot be relegated. This work has considered the analytical description of the physical division of RDCA. The three domains of the morphometric parameters (linear, areal, and relief aspects of the basin) were considered for the analysis.  Remote sensing and GIS techniques were adopted in the analysis of the data using hydrological and surface tool in ArcGIS 10.2. The acquired SRTM DEM was used to delineate the catchment area and major morphometric parameters were estimated. The results show that the basin is elongated with low leminiscate ratio. RDCA is a 7th order drainage basin, with an area of 11,355 km2, having a length of about 164 km2. Value of drainage density indicates moderate runoff potentials. Stream frequency, bifurcation ratio and constant channel maintenance indicate medium permeability and that the basin produces a flatter peak of direct runoff for a longer duration. Channel encroachment, land use and land cover change seems the cause of perennial flooding in the region than change in drainage features. This study provides scientific database for further comprehensive hydrological investigation of RDCA around which Kashimbilla dam is located.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Solid Waste Composition and Management in Agbor and Its Implication on Human Health

Edwin Ndidi Ewere, Vincent Nduka Ojeh

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i330107

The study assessed solid waste composition and how it is being managed in relation to health implications in Agbor, a nordal town in Delta State Nigeria. Survey design was used and both primary and secondary data were collected through stratified sampling technique. Solid waste management practices of respondents were generated through the use of six hundred and twenty five (625) copies of questionnaires in 8 sampling unit. The hospital report on malaria and typhoid were obtained from the medical records of central hospital, Agbor covering 1997-2011, and the solid waste composition was obtained through waste characterization and measurement. The data on solid waste management and composition were from the sanitary records of the Local Government Council, and private waste firm in Agbor called Total Resource Management Limited. The study results show 34.14% were traders, 22.14% were civil servants, 14.34% were farmers, and 29.38% were business men and women. The waste generated is 1594.11 kilogram. This shows that the total respondents of five thousand generated 1594.11 kilogram of solid waste daily. Baleke area has the highest rate of waste generated which was 223.43 kilogram; followed by Dr. Whyte area which generated 214.46 kilogram of solid waste daily. Edike area generated the highest amount of solid waste in the entire sampled areas, having 180.34 kilogram of solid waste generated daily. Food items were the greatest amount generated daily, with 1135.21 kilograms per day. Eighty five percent (85%) of malaria cases and 98.6% of typhoid cases in Agbor was consequent on solid waste composition. To enhance effectiveness in solid waste management in Agbor, the Local Government Authority should subsidize the amount of money paid for the services of private waste managers. The promulgation of punishable laws on the indiscriminate dumping of solid waste will help avoid the dumping of waste waterfront at road side and street drains.

Open Access Original Research Article

3D Seismic and Structural Analysis of Middle Agbada Reservoir Sand, Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria

F. O. Obasuyi, O. Abiola, O. J. Egbokhare, A. S. Ifanegan, J. I. Ekere

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i330108

The interpretation of 3D seismic and well logs data from ‘SUYI’ Field reveal that the reservoir sand is in the parallic sequence of the Agbada Formation and also typical structural features of the Niger Delta, namely: The roll over anticline and growth fault with a promising good hydrocarbon accumulation. In this paper, 3D seismic data and well logs data were interpreted and analyse to delineate potential reservoirs and map structures favourable to hydrocarbon accumulation, this will aid further exploration activities within the field of study. Two reservoir sands were delineated from the well logs using gamma ray logs for the lithology identification and resistivity logs for the fluid content identification. Seven faults (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, and F7) were delineated while three horizons (Horizon 1, 2 and 3) were picked across the seismic section. Most of the major faults delineated in the area trends east-west, cutting across the low structure area. The generated time and depth structure maps shows the area is characterized by low structural features but some high anticlinal structures were observed at different flanks on the maps generated, these areas are likely to be good prospect for the accumulation of hydrocarbon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Relationship between Rainfall, Maximum Temperature and Convective Systems over Selected Cities in Nigeria

B. M. Dada

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v20i330109

The convective systems and maximum temperature are key weather parameters that affect various sectors of the Nigerian economy, especially Agriculture, health and transportation. Agriculture which is the mainstay of the economy of Nigeria is weather driven. A balanced weather condition brings about good crop yield which in turn have a positive impact on the economy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rainfall, maximum temperature and convective activities over Ikeja, Abuja and Kano cities in Nigeria. Monthly weather data of squall, thunderstorms, maximum temperature and rainfall were obtained from the archives of the Nigeria Meteorological Agency for the period between 1985 and 2015 (30 years). Seasonal and inter-annual variations and relationships between the parameters were analyzed. Over Ikeja the result highlighted a gradual increase in these parameters from January to May/June, while the decrease began from October through to December. Further analysis revealed two separate peak periods for these parameters, with rainfall having its peaks in the months of June and September; Thunderstorm, June and October, and squall attaining its maxima in May and October. Over Kano, March, April and May (MAM) and September, October and November (SON) period indicated that the rain that fell during that period had positive correlation while December, January and February (DJF) and June, July and August (JJA) has a negative correlation. Over Abuja, DJF, MAM and SON showed positive while JJA shows a negative correlation. There will be a need for further studies which will consider the role(s) being played by the various triggering mechanisms and the extent to which the influence of the occurrence of these convective activities rainfall and maximum temperature. The utilization of modelling and mapping techniques may also give further insight into the variation of these systems and a clue to issuing more accurate forecasts and predictions.