Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Depositional Environment of Outcrop Section at Odoro Ikpe South Eastern Nigeria Using Pebble Morphometry

C. O. Onwuegbuchulam, V. N. Nwugha, D. O. Ikoro, A. C. Ezebunanwa, K. O. Osibe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i130115

The depositional Environment of Odoro -Ikpe, South East Nigeria was interpreted using pebble morphometry and sieve analysis. A field observation, sieve analysis and pebble morphometric analysis was carried out on the area which comprises of conglomerate, pebbles, sand stone and intercalation of shale's and clay. The lithofacies observed are lateralitic layer, pebbly sand, alternating layers of sand and conglomerates and layers of massive sand stone. The graphic mean and skewness of the grain size analysis shows that the sediments are very coarse which indicates a high energy environment. Graphic standard deviation gives a clue that the sediment were very poorly sorted, which is indicative of a fluvial deposit with high energy , while kurtosis result revealed very coarse sediment deposits. This implies that the particles were not transported very far. Pebble analysis shows the geometric forms and this was deduced from the plot on shape measurement triangle. The shape is compact bladed which is common with river deposits. The bivarate plot of mean diameter against standard deviation also indicated a fluvial environment as well as bivarate plots of co-efficient of flatness against sphericity and maximum projection sphericity against oblate, prolate index which comprises of river and beach environment.  All results showed or indicated that the environment of deposition was of river.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Flood Hazard Zones Using Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study in Part Yenagoa Metropolis

Eteh Desmond, Francis Emeka Egobueze, Francis Omonefe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i130116

Flood has been a serious hazard for the past decades in Nigeria at large. The incidence of 2012 and 2018 flood disaster in Yenagoa, Amassoma and other parts of the state have not been recover till date and the government is not consigned about the well been of the people. The major causes of the flood are attributed to increased rainfall and lack of drainages including dredging of rivers and disobeying of environmental law and infrastructure failure. Coastal Towns or communities are one of the most affected areas of flood and their farms and fishing implements were washed away by the floodwater in 2012 and 2018 in Bayelsa State. Flood management is needed for provision of time information so quick response can be done as soon as possible. Using SRTM data to produce digital elevation model and IDW Contour, the 3D model from ground data of Yenagoa metropolis using ArcGIS 10.6 to generate and analyze them. As a result of field survey, flood level calculation was made to classified flood hazard zones for migration, Agricultural Educational, and construction purpose such as land suitability. This was used in ascertaining the extent of the flooded area. The result reveals that an area of over 5.9888882km2 and riverine and coastal area is flooded, affecting more than 15 coastal and riverine communities. The finding also concludes that remote sensing data like SRTM data and Geospatial techniques seems effective in mapping and identifying areas prone to flooding. Therefore Remote sensing and Geospatial database should be established for proper flood mapping and the government should constantly dredge the area from time to time. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Details Geological Mapping and Petrological Characteristics of EL Shereik Study Area, River Nile State, North Sudan

Mahmoud Hussein Hassan, Mohamed Amlas, Al Zein A. Al Zein, Han Run Sheng

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i130118

The present study focused on details geology of the lithostratigraphy, phenomena and petrogenesis, with full classification of rock units and correlate by the regional geology in the study area. The previous studies, focused on regional geology, which can be divided in Bayuda Terrane, represented by Dem El Tor Shear Zone (DTSZ), its Precambrian to Tertiary ages (isotopic signatures of later cooling 590 to 550 Ma), with dominated by metamorphic and intrusive rocks belonging to the Pre-Nubian basement complex. The study area lies at El Shereik, River Nile State, Sudan. It is characterized by low-lying bed plains, covered with superficial deposits, with an arid climate. The techniques of this work, represented in an official, field works and laboratory test, with used Land Sat Images ETM. And Nubian Arabian Shield, represented by the Keraf Shear Zone (KSZ), its Precambrian to Phanerozoic ages (Neoproterozoic, Pb isotope ages dating, of forms is -730 -710Ma and ended in -565Ma), with dominated by metamorphic, ophiolitic mélange, volcano-sedimentary sequences, and Phanerozoic sediments. But through this detailed surveyed, we discovered different types of rock units; they were found as accumulated and highly deformed, affected by various thrusting faults. collected more than 40 samples, through six traverses, for classification and petrographic studies and classified more than 9 types of rooks units didn’t mentioned before in previous study, all of them well exposed as following: metamorphic rocks, included, migmatites, calc-silicates, wollastonite, talc-schist, carbonaceous (dolomitic marble), amphibolites, graphitic schist, mica schist, quartzo-feldspathic schist, and grey gneiss, While the Igneous rocks, consisted of dykes, as dolerite,  trachy-basaltic, Rhyolite porphyry, pegmatites, diorite, and quartz veins, whereas the superficial deposits, included, of aeolian, fluvial, and collovial. These rocks extend and spread to the outside of the limits of the study area and most of them oriented parallel with KSZ SE - NW region and a few of them are oriented E-W, This is maybe due to the collusion of the contact boundary between KSZ and DTSZ Bayuda Tehran. Talc-schist, Wollastonite and graphitic schist, represent a strategic stockpile besides gold mining. Studies conducted with DTSZ, its old age, occurred before Neoproterozoic compared to KSZ. Because it has the first deformation of the folding of pre- KSZ proportion to the presence of folding in the west and east of the Nile zone, according to the border between Bayuda Terrane and Nubian Arabian Shield, as the suggest result. And the previous studies of the ages dating confirm it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cephalonia-lefkas Transform Fault Zone (CLTFZ) Complexity: Insights from 2015 Lefkas Earthquake Sequence

Andreas Karakonstantis, Kyriaki Pavlou, Vasilis Kapetanidis, Georgios Bozionelos

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i130119

In order to define a better model for the Cephalonia-Lefkas Transform Fault Zone the sequence of 2015 Lefkas earthquake was examined. On 17 November 2015 (07:10 GMT) a major earthquake (Mw=6.4) occurred on the central-western part of Lefkas island. Several destructive events were located in the past in this fault zone, so an extensive seismotectonic study is feasible for that area. Manual analysis was performed using a custom velocity model that was determined for that purpose, applying the average travel-time residuals and location uncertainties errors minimization method. Several clusters belonging to the aftershock sequence were identified, whereas three are directly related to the causative fault, covering an area of about 25 km. The central one, which includes the mainshock, comprises of only a few aftershocks. The northern, within which the majority of aftershocks are located, lies in the central part of Lefkas island and the southern occurred close to the SW edge of the island. In addition, offshore clusters with distinct characteristics have been identified to the south, between Lefkas and Cephalonia islands. The temporal evolution of the aftershock sequence indicates that no migration was observed, given that after the occurrence of the mainshock the entire epicentral area was activated. Focal mechanisms of the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens showed dextral strike-slip faulting for both mainshock and major aftershocks of the sequence. Taking into account the spatial distribution of the aftershocks, supported by the tectonic and geomorphological settings of the region, a deformation pattern, consisting of the Cephalonia-Lefkas and Ithaca-Lefkas major fault zones which converge in the area of Vassiliki bay is proposed. The appearance of the southernmost clusters was interpreted by the positive Coulomb stress changes transfer due to major earthquake Mw=6.4.

Open Access Review Article

Further Evidence that Particulate Pollution is the Principal Cause of Global Warming: Humanitarian Considerations

J. Marvin Herndon, Mark Whiteside

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i130117

Review of published data from the 1980 Mt. St. Helens volcanic eruption and diurnal temperature range data provide further new evidence that particulate pollution, not CO2, is the main cause of global warming. A mechanism is reviewed that accounts for both local and global warming resulting from (1) aerosol particulate pollutants absorbing radiation and being heated in the troposphere, (2) the transfer of that heat to the surrounding atmosphere, (3) the lowering of the atmospheric adverse temperature gradient relative to the Earth’s surface, (4) the consequent reduction of atmospheric convection, and (5) concomitant reduction of convection-driven surface heat loss. Graphic data shows global warming in lockstep with tropospheric aerosol particulate pollution, with both processes increasing in exponential fashion in recent decades. Particulate pollution health risks are reviewed, noting for example that fine pollution particles penetrate deep into lungs and systemic circulation and contribute to stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, COPD, respiratory infections, asthma and neurodegenerative disease. The good news is that global warming can be substantially and quickly reduced if particulate-trapping and particulate-reducing technologies are universally applied and the covert geoengineering aerial particulate jet-spraying ceases. The bad news is that dominant segments of academic and other significant institutional communities – government and government-contractors, intelligence agencies, environmental organizations, media, military and military contractors – are complicit and profit from poisoning the air we breathe. No one should derive benefit therefrom; something is fundamentally wrong.