Open Access Policy Article

Inequality, Injustice and India’s Forgotten People

Jeetesh Rai, Smriti Soni

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i330128

It is the Boston Consulting Group’s 15th annual report called ‘Winning the Growth Game: Global Wealth 2015’ that has been extensively reported by the media persons in India. This report came just one year after the Global Wealth Databook 2014 from Credit Suisse wherein the picture of global inequality is presented in a more accurate and comprehensive manner. It is undisputed that over time there has been a significant decline in poverty in India. However, the same is not true about inequality. Has inequality declined with the same rate as the decline in poverty in India? As per the official data collected on all parameters of development in India the tribals are straggling way behind in terms of income, health, education, nutrition, infrastructure and governance. Tribals in India have been the receivers of injustices throughout the process of development. To exemplify, among 65 to 70 million people displaced during the development process in India 40 per cent are tribals. In India, more than 90 per cent of total coal and above 50 per cent of minerals and dams are located in the tribal regions, yet these areas have remained the least developed. In paradox to economic theory, many developed districts in India include pockets of intense backwardness. The paper argues that in India the tribals have remained excluded from the list of beneficiaries in the development process. The paper also discusses the process of marginalization of tribal in the developmental process and towards the end gives some recommendations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Landform on Agricultural Land Use Pattern: A Case Study of Salda River Basin in Purulia District, West Bengal

Manoj Kumar Mahato, N. C. Jana

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i330125

The present study is concerned with the analysis of landform characteristics of Salda River basin and its impact on agriculture land use pattern. The Salda basin is one of the sub-basins of Subarnarekha River, with diversified landscape pattern in the western part of Purulia district in West Bengal. This basin is constituted by plateaus, plains with terraces, scarps, inselbergs, which is evolved under polycyclic evolution. The development of polycyclic geomorphic processes in this basin is typified by diverse morphology and drainage, which largely influence the land use pattern in this area. These diverse landscape patterns indicate the interaction of litho-tectonic-structural and various geomorphic processes with recent human intervention.

The main objectives of the present study are to analyse the landforms characteristics, correlate them with land use and identify problems as well as prospects of agricultural land utilization. The entire study is based on both primary and secondary data. Extensive field survey has been conducted to collect primary information regarding terrain characteristics, micro relief, slope characteristics, hydrological attributes, soil character, natural vegetation, environmental hazards. The Survey of India topographical sheets, meteorological data, agricultural production data, land use and land cover data have been collected for the analysis of geomorphological characteristics, land classification, and agricultural land use pattern.

This study reflects the typical land characteristics of the fringe area of Chhotanagpur plateau, where some typical geomorphic attributes control the productivity of the land and also controls the socio-economic conditions of the local people. The present authors have tried to examine the typical geomorphic attributes and their effects on present productivity of the land in a micro level study, where agriculture is the main source of income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Holocene Lacustrine Environment in the Western Eritrea-evidence from Freshwater Shells

Wegahta Tesfalidet Berhe, Hiroaki Ishiga

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i330126

This study focused on finding of freshwater molluscs in Holocene sediments outcropping in western Eritrea. Three species of gastropods were found in calcareous sediments at the bank of a tributary river named Shatera River, within the license of Bisha Mines, they are Melanoides tuberculate (O. F. Müller, 1774), Bulinus globosus (Morelet, 1866) and Indoplanorbis exustus (Deshayes, 1833). The 14C dating on the shells of I. exustus and B. globosus was also carried out. The age dating result showed (9326-9134 cal yr BP) and (9134-8999 cal yr BP) respectively, of which are in the mid-Holocene epoch (11,000–5000 yr BP). This epoch is best known for it was a time when the northern and eastern part of Africa experienced a warm and humid climate.

Among the freshwater molluscs, the existence of Melanonids tuberculate makes it more significant, for its widespread occurrence in Quaternary deposits throughout Africa and Asia in both fresh and highly evaporated lakes. This is suggestive of the considerable development of the lacustrine environment in the western part of Eritrea, which at present has disappeared.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reflections and Implications of Philately in the Promotion of Mining and Mineral Samples, Fossils and Gems in Romania (I): 1945-1960

Bogdan Cioruța, Alexandru Leonard Pop, Mirela Coman

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i330127

The natural heritage is defined and accepted as the set of physico-geographic and biocenotic (floristic, faunistic) components and structures of the natural environment, whose ecological, economic, scientific, biogenic, sanogenic, landscape, recreational and cultural-historic significance and value has a relevant significance for present and future generations. Constantly promoting philatelic themes that address the natural heritage, different philatelic associations and post office entities performs a series of postage elements in whose pictures we also find the Romanian industrial preoccupations over time. In this paper we propose an insight into the history of mining-philately and bring into discussion the first significant concerns in promoting mining activity and mineral samples, fossils and gems in Romania. In this context, the main objective of this paper is to identify, index and describe the main philatelic pieces issued in Romania (postal stamps, FDCs, occasional envelopes, postcards and maxicards etc), from the beginning of issuing in this field, namely the period 1945-1960.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms Associated with Bioremediation of Oil Spilled Site in Bodo West, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Tombari Bodo, Lekpa Kingdom David, Batombari Gbidum Gimah

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i330129

The samples collected from an oil spilled sites in Bodo West in Gokana Local Government of Rivers State in Nigeria were isolated to identify microorganisms associated with bioremediation. The population of about 311 different forming colonies were recorded in the study area; out of which 18 distinctive colonies were identified based on their morphological observation. From the selected isolates, 10 of them were assumed to be degraders because they form maximum clear zones on the mineral salt media. The results of the analysis show that notable number of microorganism of which seven bacteria and seven fungi were isolated and identified. The bacteria are Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus lactic, Streptococcus epidemidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium sprogenes, Aerococcus viridems, and Bacillus anthracis. The fungi are Articulosspara inflate, Dendospora erecta, Aspergillus niger, Liodioderium Species, Geotichrum albdum, Aspergillus funigatus and Sreptothric atrax. On the strength of the result, it is inferred that microorganisms are associated with bioremediation and can be used for environmental and petroleum cleanup exercise in an oil spilled site.