Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration for Marble Deposit in Parts of Okpella, South-Southern Nigeria

K. O. Ozegin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i330145

The ultimate aim of the electrical resistivity survey is to determine the resistivity distribution with depth on the basis of surface measurements of the apparent resistivity and to interpret it in terms of geology. Marble deposit was investigated with the application of electrical resistivity method using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique with the aim of characterising this deposit in parts of Okpella. Six (6) VES were acquired using the Schlumberger array for data acquisition with current electrode spacing varying from 1.0 to 150.0 m. The VES data obtained were interpreted using ipi2win Software. The results showed three layers indicating subsurface geologic sequence probed 26.4 m and beyond with clay/clayey sand (23.3 – 219.1 Ωm), sand (423 - 2040 Ωm) and marble (12661 - 404498 Ωm). The occurrence of marble deposit was revealed at VES points at 1, 2 and 5 in the studied area.  This study concluded that the study area had occurrence of the marble deposits, which would be of economic importance, if exploited.

Open Access Original Research Article

Palynological Characteristic of Dark Gray Clays in the Ivorian Onshore Basin at Southern Bingerville

Gbangbot Jean-Michel Kouadio, Bié Goha René, Yao N’Goran Jean-Paul, Digbéhi Zéli Bruno

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i330146

Samples from two wells implanted at the level of the dark gray clay outcrop of Bingerville were the subject of this palynological study. The main objective of this work is to inventory all the palynomorphs encountered, to propose a local palynostratigraphy and to reconstitute the paleobotany of our study area during the Tertiary formations north of the lagoon fault. The samples were processed according to the classical procedure of extraction and concentration of palynomorphs.

The high populations of dinocysts of the genus Lejeunecysta lata, Opreculodinium centrocarpum and Selenopemphix quanta as well as those of spores and pollens of the genre Magnastriatites howardii, Perfotricolpites digitatus, Pachydermites diederixi, Bombacacidites bombax, Retitricolporites irregularis, Retitriporites sp. Verrucatosporites usmensis are tributary to Oligocene.

At the palaeobotanical and palaeoecological level, the highlighted palynoflora made it possible to characterize three environments, including mangroves, coastal plain, and rainforests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Manufacture of Biogas from the Anaerobic Treatment of Cow Dung from Federal University of Technology, Owerri Livestock Farm

O. E. Ugwu, J. U. Igbanny, T. S. Ademiju

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i330147

Energy from hydrocarbon compounds has over the years been expensive and also played a part in negative health implications amongst others, for this reason alternative sources of energy have been sort for. In the quest for a healthier, more cost-effective energy, cow dung as a renewable source has been proven to be very efficient. This study investigated the manufacture of biogas using cow dung from School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (S.A.A.T) livestock farm located in Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

25 kg of the cow dung was used in this study. The digestion was carried out in a 50L anaerobic digester at a temperature of 30°C - 36°C and uncontrolled pH for a period of 40 days. The average quantity of biogas produced through the period was 10.39 liters, representing 46% of the total biogas production. The average temperature was 33.0°C. The utilization of cow dung as fuel will also help in the management of waste within the livestock farm. As an eco-friendly source of energy, the biomass generated after digestion can be utilized to improve soil fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soils around ESPRO Asphalt Production and Quarry Site, Wasinmi, Osun State Southwest Nigeria

O. O. Alabi, S. O. Sedara, S. Y. Awowole

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i330148

This work examined the concentration of heavy metals in soil samples around ESPRO Asphalt Production and Quarry Site located in Wasinmi, Irewole Local Government Area, Osun State. A total of nine (9) soil samples were collected from three points with distances of 0, 1 and 2 km from the quarry site. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil samples. The results revealed that the mean values metal contents in the soil samples analyzed were in the order Fe>Zn>Cu>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cd. The concentration of the heavy metals in the soil samples were found to decrease as the soil depths increased from 0-25 cm and also as the spatial distances of the sampled locations increased from the quarry plant.

The study also showed that low concentrations of Lead (Pb) had a mean concentration value of 0.87 ppm and Cadmium (Cd) with a mean concentration value of 0.29 ppm. It was also observed that Iron (Fe) had the highest mean concentration value of 148.8 ppm. The study concluded that quarrying activities raised the soil heavy metal contents up to the range of about 2 km away from the quarry site. This can be attributed to the number of years of mining and excavation activities in the study area and accumulation of the heavy metal concentrations over time and this could be dangerous to the site environments, especially for farming and groundwater exploration activities in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Static Mantle Density Distribution 1 Equation

Tian Quan Yun

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i330149

The study of mantle distribution does relate to the reflecting of seismic waves, and has important meaning. Using Archimedes Principle of Sink or Buoyancy (APSB), Newton’s gravitation, buoyancy, lateral buoyancy, centrifugal force and the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (PMPE), we derive equation of static mantle density distribution. It is a set of double-integral equations of Volterra/Fredholm type.  Some new results are: (1) The mantle is divorced into sink zone, neural zone and buoyed zone. The sink zone is located in a region with boundaries of a inclined line, with angle α1=35°15’ apex at  0(0,0,0) revolving around the z-axis, inside the crust involving the equator. The buoyed zone is located in the remainder part, inside the crust involving poles. The neural zone is the boundary between the buoyed and sink zones. The shape of core (in sink zone) is not a sphere. (2) The Potential energy inside the Earth is calculated by Newton’s gravity, buoyancy, centrifugal force and lateral buoyancy. (3) The gravitational acceleration above/on the crust is tested by formula with two parameters reflecting gravity and centrifugal force, and the phenomenon of “heavier substance sinks down in vertical direction due to attraction force, and moves towards to edges in horizontal direction due to centrifugal force” is tested by a cup of stirring coffee.