Open Access Original Research Article

Co-occurrence of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Cyanotoxins and Trace Elements in Commercial Fish Species from a Freshwater Protected Area (Pertusillo Lake, Southern Italy)

Rita De Pace, Maria Maddalena Storelli, Grazia Barone, Valentina Messineo, Milena Bruno

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i430152

A total of 79 fish samples covering nine species were collected in a preliminary investigation on a SCI (Site of Community Importance) water reservoir (Pertusillo Lake, Southern Italy) created for drinking purpose and located in a territory used for drilling activities. Analyses for microcystins (MYCs) and cylindrospermopsins (CYLs) presence were performed using Elisa assays, while 10 fish samples were analyzed also for trace elements by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by GC-MS operated in EI mode. The results showed the compresence of important cyanotoxins and industrial contaminants in fish. More extended studies are needed to evaluate the combined effects of these contaminants on the lake ecosystem and ichthyic fauna, in order to establish an available risk assessment for human population in the lake region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bathymetric Survey and Topography Changes Investigation of Part of Badagry Creek and Yewa River, Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria

Badejo, Olusegun Temitope, Adewuyi, Gbola Kehinde

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i430153

Bathymetry survey of Part of Badagry Creek and Yewa River was conducted with the aim of investigating the topography changes in depth between two epoch dataset by calculating the volume of sediment and dredged material between the two periods. Depth sounding at 100m interval, data grid of 100 m interval, constant vessel speed of 2.2 m/secs (8Km/hr) for data capture, data storage at interval of 30 Secs was ensured at both the creek and the river. Seabed topography changes of Part of Badagry Creek and Yewa River was investigated. The two dataset investigated was the data acquired in September 2008 and November 2015. Data acquisition was done using digital echo sounder SDE28, Handheld Real time Kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) in acquiring the spatial coordinates (x, y) and water depth (z). Six (6) wrecks (Shipping Boat) were determined along both the creek and the river. The initial processing was carried out with the use of HYPACK 2008 software for data sorting. ArcGIS 10.2.1 was used for data analysis as well as graphics design. The processed depths were presented in form of tables, map/plan and charts. The result showed that In 2008, the depth observed ranges from (-0.5 to 10.4) m while in 2015, the depth observed ranges from (-0.32 to 10.85) m which implies that some area have been cut.  Also, the results of the volume of deposited sediments and dredged material are computed as 10.55 x 106 m3 and 7.24 x 106 m3. It showed from the result that volume of accreted sediment is greater than volume of the material dredged. Increase in volume of sediment deposited could be as a result of the adjoining river Yewa flowing into the larger river (tributaries) of the Badagry Creek. Therefore, further studies need to carry out in order to know the source of accreted mass through integrated coastal management plan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Comparative Study of the Trend and Variation of Meteorological Parameters in Abeokuta, South-West Nigeria

M. A. Sodunke, M. O. Sulaimon, R. S. Sunmonu, A. Mabosanyinje, Y. B. Lawal, K. J. Oseni, O. O. Oni

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i430155

This study focuses on the statistical comparative study of the trend and variation of meteorological parameters covering a 10 year period (2001-2010) in the capital and largest city of Ogun State, Abeokuta, southwest region of Nigeria. The analyzed meteorological parameters were: wind speed, vapour pressure, relative humidity, temperature, sunshine and rainfall covering 10 years. The calculated coefficient of variation (CV) for sunshine (22.78%), wind speed (21.55%), and rainfall (99.12%) is a proof of exceedance of variability of threshold of 10% while the CV calculated for  air temperature (5.74%), relative humidity (4.52%) and vapour pressure (5.22%) show no significant variability. Significance test of meteorological parameters’ trend reveals a notable reduction in the values of vapour pressure, air temperature and relative humidity. It is, however, difficult to argue for a well-defined change in most of the meteorological parameters based on the monthly time series analyses performed in this work. Only wind speed shows a statistically significant increasing trend during the period of observation at 1% significance level. The trend revealed by rainfall and sunshine is statistically not significant. ANOVA test of significant difference among meteorological parameters show a p-value (Sig.) of 0.000 is an indication of the significant difference in the analyzed mean monthly coefficient of variation for the meteorological parameters under study. The Tukey’s multiple pair comparisons test, however, show that there is a significant difference between the mean monthly CV of rainfall–sunshine, rainfall-vapour pressure, rainfall-wind speed, rainfall-air temperature and rainfall-relative humidity. At the significance level of 5%, the calculated mean monthly CV of rainfall is significantly different from the mean monthly CV of other climatic parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Road Condition Monitoring of Major and Minor Route in Part of Ibadan Metropolis Using Geo-spatial Approach

Babatunde, Akeem Adesola, Adewuyi, Gbola Kehinde, Oyekola, Martins Adewale

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i430156

Major and minor road conditions of part of Ibadan metropolis was assessed to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of the road network system. The major objectives of the study are to locate and identify the road networks within the study area, evaluate the road conditions such as an area with defects such as potholes and crack, evaluate the features that observe and did not observe the right of way using geospatial approach. Single-frequency Hi-target differential global positioning system (DGPS), a steel tape was used for field observations and measurements. Google earth satellite imagery was used to determine the route and spatial location of potholes and cracks within the study area. Generally from the study, it revealed a total number of 81 potholes, 29 cracks and the result from the right of way showed that none of the features observed the specification of right of way thou some of those features exists before converting the road into two lanes for easy passage and flow of vehicle in order to avoid constant traffic congestions. Therefore, proper monitoring should be done by State and local government agency in charge of road construction/maintenance to avoid the improper location of features by an individual, corporate organization etc. along both the major and minor route from time to time and adequate checking on roads.

Open Access Review Article

Geophysical Consequences of Tropospheric Particulate Heating: Further Evidence that Anthropogenic Global Warming is Principally Caused by Particulate Pollution

J. Marvin Herndon, Mark Whiteside

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v22i430157

The climate science community and the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have misinformed world governments by failing to acknowledge tropospheric particulate geoengineering that has been ongoing with ever-increasing duration and intensity for decades, and by treating global warming solely as a radiation-balance issue, which has resulted in a seriously incomplete understanding of the fundamental factors that affect Earth’s surface temperature. Here we review the consequences of tropospheric particulate heating by absorption of short- and long-wave solar radiation and long-wave radiation from Earth’s surface. Generally, black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum; brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light; iron oxides are good absorbers, the most efficient being magnetite. Pyrogenic coal fly ash, both from coal burning and from tropospheric jet-spraying geoengineering (for military purposes and/or climate engineering), contains carbon and iron oxides, hematite and magnetite. The recently published climate-science paradigm shift discloses that the main cause of global warming is not carbon dioxide heat retention, but particulate pollution that absorbs radiation, heats the troposphere, and reduces the efficiency of atmospheric-convective heat removal from Earth’s surface. In addition to the World War II data, three other independent lines of supporting evidence are reviewed: (1) Passage overhead of the Mt. St. Helens volcanic plume; (2) Radiosonde and aethalometer investigations of Talukdar et al.; and, (3) convection suppression over the tropical North Atlantic caused by the Saharan-blown dust. The risks associated with the placement of aerosol particulates into the stratosphere, whether lofted naturally, inadvertently, or deliberately as proposed for solar radiation management, poses grave risks, including the destruction of atmospheric ozone. To solve global warming humanity must: (1) Abruptly halt tropospheric particulate geoengineering; (2) Trap particulate emissions from coal-fired industrial furnaces (especially in India and China) and from vehicle exhaust; and, (3) Reduce particulate-forming fuel additives.