Open Access Original Research Article

GIS-based Network Analysis for Optimisation of Public Facilities Closure: A Study on Libraries in Leicestershire, United Kingdom

Efiong, Joel

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i330168

Many public facilities in the United Kingdom are being closed without consideration to their users, leading to social exclusion. Hence, this study investigated the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in identifying public facilities which can be closed while saving cost and minimizing distance, using the libraries in Leicestershire as case study. Data for the study were obtained from secondary sources through the internet. This study used the location-allocation tool model, within the geographical information environment, to identify a set of libraries that should be closed in Leicestershire to save 20% cost and optimised for the needs of unemployed people, children of school age and pensioners (people over 65 years). Based on these considerations, the study identified the following ten libraries for closure: Barwell, Blaby, Cosby, Desford, Enderby, Groby, Hathern, Kirby Muxloe, Mounstsorrel and Sapcote. If this is adopted, it therefore means that the distance that users will need to travel from their homes to libraries in the new order would have been minimised and access not denied. This study has therefore demonstrated the use of GIS in decision making. This method is an innovation in the use of the model and should be used to evaluate library accessibility and identify those that could be closed without much negative impacts at the national level and for other facilities elsewhere.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remote Sensing and GIS Contribution for Groundwater Mapping Reservoirs in the Baya Watershed (Eastern Region of Côte d'Ivoire)

M. J. Mangoua, K. A. Kouassi, G. A. Douagui, I. Savané, J. Biémi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i330169

This study is carried out in the Baya watershed in the eastern region of Côte d'Ivoire to highlight access to drinking water issue in the fratured areas of Côte d'Ivoire. It aims at mapping the groundwater reservoirs to optimize the future installment of new boreholes for a satisfactory success rate. For the methodological approach we use Landsat 7 satellite images to map fracture networks with the use of the directional filtering technique. The induced permeabilities from these fractures were calculated using Fanciss’s method. The multicriteria analysis and Hydrogeological Information System with Spatial Reference were adopted to map groundwater reservoirs. Structural mapping by remote sensing permitted the development of detailed fractures maps with more than 6,998 listed fractures responsible for the formation of fracture aquifers in the Baya watershed. The size of these fractures is spread over two orders of magnitude. The main orientations are NE-SO (N70-80), corresponding to the Eburnean orientations, E-O (N90-100) and NO-SE (N100-120), associated with the Liberian orientation.

Induced permeabilities vary from 1.20.10-8 to 4.62.10-5 m/s with a regional average of about 5.32.10-6 m/s. The zones with strong induced permeabilities that coincide with those of high fracturing densities brought us to have five reservoirs in the basin, with two large reservoirs, two media and three small ones. This groundwater flows into the mainstream waters from two main directions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Petrology and Geochemistry of Hama Koussou Dolerite Dyke Swarms (North Cameroon, Central Africa)

Fagny Mefire Aminatou, Bardintzeff Jacques-Marie, Nkouandou Oumarou Faarouk, Lika Gbeleng Thomas d’Aquin, Ngougoure Mouansie Samira

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i330170

The Pan African granitoid basement of Hama Koussou Cretaceous half basin in North Cameroun (Central Africa) is transected by near N-S, NE-SW and ENE-WSW giant doleritic dykes trending along the same Pan African directions. Hama Koussou dolerites are compliant with the regional distension that occurred after the Pan African basement consolidation prior to the development of West and Central African Rift System at Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Studied lavas are composed of large clinopyroxene oïkocrysts, plagioclase and alkali feldspar laths and oxides phenocrysts exhibiting ophitic, sub-ophitic and intercertal textures. Microprobe chemical analyses carry out on the main mineral phases show that clinopyroxenes are diopside and augite, plagioclases are labradorite, andesine, oligoclase and albite and alkali feldspars are mainly sanidine with a few percent of orthoclase. ICP-MS and ICP-AES geochemical analyses of Hama Koussou lavas exhibit basalt, basaltic trachyandesite and trachyandesite compositions of continental tholeiite features. Tholeiite basalts of Hama Koussou are the results of high partial melting of E-MORB mantle source of spinel lherzolite composition, located at 65-55 km depth. More evolved tholeiite lavas of Hama Koussou basin are the products of tholeiite basalt differentiation trough assimilation and fractional crystallization coupled with fluids circulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stakeholders’ Interaction and Sustainable Rural Development Implementation Challenges in Kom, Western Highlands of Cameroon

Zephania N. Fogwe, Eugene N. Ateh, Jude N. Kimengsi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i330171

Rural development stakeholder support is an essential strategy for the initiation, operation, and implementation of sustainable of development interventions, especially in geographically-biased highland regions, characterised by diverse stakeholder development interests. This paper sought to analyze the interaction of rural development stakeholders and the challenges linked to the implementation of sustainable rural development initiatives in the Kom Highlands of Cameroon. Primary data was obtained through semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The data was analysed using content analysis, while a spatial picture, based on slope gradient was presented. Results showed that rural development is strongly determined by slope gradients of this highland community, with an array of diverse rural development experts (organizations, local councils, government ministries and development-oriented non-governmental organizations) operating mainly with local communities and organizations. The use of stakeholder theory thus appeared significant in understanding stakeholders’ goals for implementing of sustainable rural development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Groundwater Quality Assessment near an Open Dump Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria

E. A. Okunade, M. S. Awopetu, A. Bolarinwa

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i330172

This study assessed groundwater quality around an open dump municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal site at Ilokun, a village on the outskirts of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Three geotechnical boreholes and three water boreholes (tube wells) were drilled at intervals of 15m, 30m and 45m away from the disposal site. Soil samples were obtained near the top and at the bottom of the geotechnical boreholes. Tests carried out on these samples included the sieve analysis, specific gravity, bulk density, natural moisture contents, Atterberg limits, linear shrinkage, and hydraulic conductivity tests, and these were used to index and classify the soils at the landfill dumpsite. It was discovered that the soils belonged to the clay and clayey-sand USCS groups (CL and SC mainly). Groundwater samples were taken from the three water boreholes (tube wells), and physical, chemical and microbiological investigations carried out on the water samples and on water obtained from an existing hand-dug well in the neighbourhood of the dumpsite. The parameters obtained from the tests on the samples were compared with the Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality of the Standards Organisation of Nigeria. The water quality parameters determined included: the acidity (pH), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), colour and odour, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), and contents of the constituents such as total iron, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, etc. The microbiological characteristics determined are the Total Bacterial Count (Total coliform count), and the presence of Faecal streptococci, Staphylococcus aeurus and Escherichia coli. It was discovered that the groundwater at the dumpsite has been heavily contaminated and unfit for human consumption or usage without appropriate treatment to render them potable and fit for domestic use.