Open Access Method Article

Frequency, Harmfulness and Vulnerability (FHV) Multicriteria Method for Integrated Analysis of Illegal Exploitations and Strategic Participatory Management of Protected Areas in Africa

Ntiranyibagira Elysée, Uwiringiyimana Thacienne, Nsengumuremyi Concorde, Kibogo Andrew, Muhirwa Fabien, Maniraho Léonidas, Twagirumukiza Aloys, Ngiruwonsanga Innocent

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430179

In Africa, protected areas are facing hudge illegal exploitations and accelerated degradation. Illegal exploitations are interesting indicators of local socio-economic needs and hostility of populations to conservation activities. The study aimed to develop a specific method for the analysis of illegal exploitations and the promotion of successful participatory management. Basically, the Multicriteria method used to determine the impact and the gravity of illegal exploitations relies on three criteria based on offenses themselves and affected resources. The method combines statistical analysis of management data using ANOVA and χ² tests, field observations and semi-structured interviews for validation. For the tested Rusizi national Park, the findings showed that the number of supervised exploitations increased from 1988 to 2015 while the number of supervised operators is limited and highly fluctuating between resources and periods. The public integration ratio is 8 0/000 and corresponds to 61 supervised operators of which 84% are involved in vegetal resources exploitations. In total, 10 illegal exploitations whose impact values range from 1 to 20 and belong to very high and high impact classes were reported.  Average, 651 cases of which 71% cover direct cuts of vegetation were reported annually. Statistically, the most damaging illegal exploitations are made of tree and vegetation cuts, cattle grazing and fishing. Illegal exploitations are seasonal and more important in dry season than in rainy season. They are more important in Delta sector than in Palmeraie sector. The shift from gracious exploitations to lucrative operations, over-taxation of supervised exploitations, low ratio of public integration, political conflicts and unarmed protection contributed to increase and strengthen significantly illegal exploitations. Ultimately, the results revealed the limits of participatory management on illegal exploitations. Consequently, the success of participatory management in Rusizi national Park requires strategic and concerted development projects, more responsive regulatory measures and relevant partnerships with peripheral village.

Open Access Policy Article

World War II Holds the Key to Understanding Global Warming and the Challenges Facing Science and Society

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430181

At about the same time that Russian President Putin declared that “We are really witnessing global warming, the reasons, however, remain obscure....”, I published the first of six scientific articles disclosing the evidence and basis for understanding that particulate pollution, not anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is the main cause of global warming. The global warming that occurred during World War II, but which quickly subsided after hostilities ceased, was key to that understanding. The disquieting parallel of scientific behaviour during World War II and at present is key to understanding the challenges humanity faces today concerning science and society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Two-dimensional Analytical Derivation of Incipient Desaturation Criterion in Stream-aquifer Flow Exchange

Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430173

A criterion for incipient desaturation for a stream and an aquifer initially in saturated hydraulic connection is derived analytically. The riverbed acts as a clogging layer. Such a criterion cannot be derived using a one-dimensional analysis. At least a two-dimensional analysis is required. It applies for a variety of shape of cross-sections. The formulae are algebraic and show explicitly the various factors that affect the initiation of desaturation such as river width, thickness of the aquifer, thickness of the clogging layer, conductivities of the clogging layer and of the aquifer, (drainage) entry pressure of the aquifer, ponded depth over the riverbed and aquifer head at some distance from the river bank. It is shown also that neglecting the change in thickness of the capillary fringe due to flow, as opposed to its hydrostatic value, has little impact on the accuracy of the criteria for incipient desaturation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Facies Analysis of Eocene Sediment of Umuahia Area, Southeastern Nigeria

A. C. Ezebunanwa, J. I. Eronin, V. Okorie, E. C. Mbagwu, Njoku Achu Uchenna

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430174

This research work is the detailed facies analysis of the depositional environments and paleogeographic setting of the Eocene sedimentary sequence (Ameki Formations) exposed in the Umuahia area and paleoclimate during that periods. The study area was mainly concentrated around Amaudara inUmuahia South and Ekeoha in Umuahia North. And the co-ordinate are as follows,location-1 0.5°30.80N, 0.7°26.93E, location-2 0.5°30.39N, 0.7°26.62E, location-3 0.5° 32.83N, 0.7°27.24 E and location-4 0.5°32.19 N, 0.7°26.13 E.

The aim of the study is to analyze the detailed sedimentary facies and describe the depositional environment in other to predict the depositional environment of the Eocene sediment (Ameki Formation) of the study area, which is underlain by rock unit of Ameki and predominately contains Laterite, mudstone, siltstone, claystone, sandstone and shale and Burrows were identified.

The rock sequence consist of reddish lateritic material, highly weathered mudstone capped with ripped bedded kaolinite clay unit, light grey claystone, cross-bedded sandstone with claystone, whitish sandstone, siltystone, fine-medium grained sandstone with pockets of mudclast capped with ferruginized ground and dark grey shale.

On the basis of gross lithology, sand-silt-clay percentage, color, texture and assemblage of sedimentary structure, eight distinct lithofacies type were recognized, grey shale facie (Gs), clay stone facie (Cs), cross-bedded sandstone facie (Cbs), mudstone facie (Mf), lateritic facie (Lf), mudstone facie (Bms), ferruginized sandstone facie (Fsf), sandstone facie (Bsf) are recognized within the lithosuccesion.

From the analysis, the facies are grouped into two facie association on the basis of grain size. The Fine-grained facies association (FFA) which consist of Gs, Cbs, Cs, Mf and Fst and the Medium to Fine-grained facies association (MFA) which also consist of Bms, Bsf and Lf. It also shows medium grained sand, moderately sorted to well sorted sandstone, Skewness ranged from symmetrical to positive skewed and kurtosis showed leptokurtic.

Deduction from facies analysis and grain size analysis shows that Ameki Formation consist of foraminifera and Mollusca which indicate that Ameki Formation was deposited in the estuarine(Marine) environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Assessment of Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics from 1988 to 2018 in Bonny LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria

D. Dappa, B. C. Ndukwu, A. A. Obafemi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430175

This study analysed the Spatial Assessment of Land use/Land Cover Dynamics From 1988 To 2018 In Bonny LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria using Landsat imageries of 1988, 2000, 2003, 2016 and 2018 with the aid of Remote Sensing (RS) techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS). Five land use/land cover types where analysed: Waterbodies, Forest, Mangrove/Swamp, Built Up Area/Bare Surfaces and Muddy Surface. The results show that from 1988 to 2018, water bodies, forest, and mangrove/swamp reduced by 5.14%, 25.07%, and 38.28% respectively while built-up area/cleared lands and muddy surface increased by 69.42% and 682.24%. Findings show that spatial coverage of forest and mangrove/swamp decreased between 1988 and 2018 and the reduction in forest cover reduces the significant role that it plays in maintaining the ecosystem. This study has clearly shown the roles of geo-information technologies at monitoring land use/landcover change in Bonny LGA, Rivers State and therefore, recommended that re-afforestation projects, strict legislation, policies, and strategies should be established to replenish the forests and mangrove/swamp; should be put in place.

Open Access Original Research Article

Petrophysical Application towards Achieving Optimum Secondary Recovery in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

I. E. Udoinyang, Ekere Akpan, N. J. George

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430176

Globally the challenge to meet the increasing energy demand is on with the application of game-changing technologies to maximize recovery from proven reserves in mature assets. Production studies have shown that some Niger delta fields have heterogeneous reservoirs with low to fair recovery factor derived in most cases by software simulations without adequate field acquired reservoir parameters before embarking on the secondary development plan for such reservoirs. Failures recorded in most secondary recovery strategies for heterogeneous reservoirs are accountable for lack of in-depth studies of the reservoir characteristics. There is a direct relationship between reservoir recovery factor and the petrophysics of the reservoir. A sand body in the field can exhibit variable petrophysical changes at different positions in the field. Therefore optimum secondary recovery plan for such reservoirs are designed with the combination of field acquired (not simulated) petrophysical data (porosity and permeability), the environment of deposition, special core analysis and formation evaluation studies. This study emanates from the recently developed project in a field in Niger delta.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Atmospherics Parameters Retrieved by a Neuro-varationnal Method off the West African Coast

Daouda Diouf, Sylvie Thiria, Awa Niang, Julien Brajard, Michel Crepin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430177

In this work, we study spatial and temporal atmospherics parameters evolution retrieved by neuro-variationnal method from SeaWiFS observations measured off the west African coast.

The SeaWiFS sensor measures the radiance above the top of atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance.

SeaWiFS use standard algorithm to invert the signal in order to retrieve weakly absorbing aerosol optical thickness (AOT) less than 0.3 whereas the Senegalese coasts are frequently crossed by desert dust plumes from large optical thickness.

A neural algorithm, so-called SOM-NV, was developed to deal with absorbing aerosols and to retrieve their optical parameters, off the Senegalese coast, from SeaWiFS observations.

The impact of meteorological variables on these restitutions was studied over the entire period of the observations that we analyzed and over the whole studied area, on the one hand, but also in a more thorough way on three "sub-area" located in north, south and center. The results obtained showed that the composition of aerosols in the atmosphere is a function of the seasons. High altitude zonal U winds are correlated with non-desert aerosols of -62.16% in winter and autumn. The correlation is -60.32% between dust aerosols and the zonal wind.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geomorphological Parameters as Correlates of Channel Erosion in River Ajilosun in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti, Nigeria

S. J. Arohunsoro, O. O. Ojo, A. A. Shittu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430180

The paper examined the relationship between geomorphological parameters and channel erosion in River Ajilosun in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Data on geomorphological parameters and channel erosion of the River Ajilosun were generated through direct field measurements using tape measure, ranging pole and a piece of flat board. Some of the variables were also derived through simple linear mathematical relationships. Analysis of the various data was done with both descriptive and inferential techniques. The result of the analysis showed that channel erosion exhibited spatial variation across and along the longitudinal profiles of River Ajilosun and also between the concrete-channelised and the alluvial reaches of the river. The result of the analysis also revealed both positive and negative correlations between the geomorphological parameters and channel erosion in the river. The measures suggested for controlling channel erosion in River Ajilosun included effective channel and slope management, improvement of the channel capacity retention of channel bank vegetation and protection of the valley side vegetation among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) Semi-distributed Model Input Data for the Hydrological Simulation of the Lobo Water Reservoir (Central West of Côte d'Ivoire)

T. J. J. Koua, K. H. Kouassi, K. A. Anoh

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430182

This study aims to analyze the input data of the semi-distributed SWAT model that can be used as a hydrological study of the Lobo water reservoir. The adopted approach includes two major steps: The input data estimation and the watershed configuration. The estimation of input data consists in the collection and calculation of input data necessary for the watershed configuration. The input data collected and estimated were a digital elevation model (DEM), a soil map, soil physico-chemical parameters (grain size, K erodibility coefficient, exchangeable anions, soil density, organic carbon, soil electrical conductivity), a land cover map, information on agricultural practices and daily climate data (Temperature, Rainfall, Sunshine, Wind Speed ​​and Relative Humidity). The watershed configuration consisted of the extraction of watershed boundaries and watershed network, the integration of data, the calculation of hydrological response units (HRU) and the watershed configuration. The SWAT model permitted to extract a single type of soil for Lobo water reservoir watershed. The watershed has a dense drainage system which means that the area is heavily drained. The degraded forest occupies 37% of the watershed followed by agricultural land (30% of the territory). 213 HRU from 39 sub-watersheds were also obtained. These data are an indispensable tool for the hydrological simulation of the Lobo reservoir.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Community’s Resilience to Flooding in the Flood-prone Areas of the Core Niger Delta, Nigeria

D. A. Week, C. H. Wizor, O. S. Eludoyin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430183

The study assessed the community’s resilience to flooding in the flood-prone areas of the Core Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. 790 respondents were selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique in Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Findings showed that the level of community’s resilience to floods in the core Niger Delta included distribution of relief materials by community flood control committee (61.9%); helping flood control committee to effectively use the equipment to detect early flood warning (56.5%), the response committee effectively measured and assessed the extent and risk after every flood incident (52.1%), National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) or the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) engaging members of the community flood control committee on capacity building on ways of mitigating flood menace (51.7%); and community constructing flood barks, drainage, dam, etc. in order to control or manage flood incidents (51.1%). The study revealed that the frequency (F=2.661, p<.05) and magnitude (F=1.355, p<.05) of flood determined its intensity in communities in the study area. The study recommended among others that communities should set up an efficient and effective flood control committee in order to effectively tackle the impacts of flood menace, including the Ministry of Agriculture enhancing the knowledge of local farmers in using new and improved inputs and techniques (i.e. smart agriculture) for planting crops that can be harvested before the flooding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Electrical Resistivity and Hydrochemistry Methods for Mapping Groundwater Contamination around Okun Ilashe Island Area, Lagos State, Southwestern Nigeria

T. O. Alabi, S. O. Ilugbo, O. E. Akinmoye, M. A. Ibitomi, I. Aigbedion, K. A. Adeleke, B. S. Ajanaku

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430184

An application of Electrical Resistivity and hydrochemistry investigation involving Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and water quality analysis was conducted around Okun Ilashe Island area of Lagos state, southwestern Nigeria where there have been reported cases of groundwater contamination. The hydrochemical analysis was performed on five water samples in the area; two from boreholes and others from hand dug wells. Present study investigation showed that the groundwater had been contaminated by hydrocarbon arising from pipeline leakages in the studied area. The hydrocarbon contaminated plumes are specially characterized by relatively high resistivity values (> 800 Ω-m) and were delineated to a depth of about 12 m. Hydrochemical results showed that three of the sampled water have higher total dissolved solids (TDS) (>400 ppm) in compared to the remaining water samples. The major ions identified includes Na+, K+, Cl, Mg2+, Ca2+ and NO3-. Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) showed values not in agreement with WHO standards values. Ten (10) Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) stations were occupied along four traverse lines trending E-W direction. The vertical electrical sounding results indicate maximum of four subsurface layers; Top soil, hydrocarbon contaminated sand, clay/clayey sand and sand/sandy clay. The contaminant plume has migrated to a significant depth of 12 m thus posing an inherent danger to the inhabitant of the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions and Attitudes of Students towards Tourism and Recreation Activities in Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria

B. O. Bankole, O. O. Ojo, A. A. Shittu, S. R. Joseph

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430185

This paper examined perceptions and attitudes of students towards tourism and recreation activities in Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. A sample of 100 students was randomly selected from the 8 colleges purposively selected in the University. The number of respondents that were selected from the colleges depended on the population of each college. Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Humanities, Management and Social Sciences, Education, Engineering and Technology, Institute of Education, Information and Communication Technology, Pure and Applied Sciences and Institute of Distance and E-learning were all selected for the study. The researcher was able to retrieve 85 copies of questionnaire from the 100 copies administered. It was revealed that Kwara State University students were willing to engage in tourism and recreation activities. Many of the students were constrained to participate in stressing that their studies give opportunity for them to engage in tourism and recreation activities. It was concluded that the student’s perceptions and attitudes towards tourism and recreation activities is relatively good. Therefore, it was recommended that, the school must create avenue for students to engage and involve more in tourism and recreation activities and this could be done by creating more sport centres and other recreational activities within the campus. The school should create more tourism centres in order to boost student’s involvement in recreation and tourism activities in the school. The school management should ensure that they mandate the students to engage in activities that could help to fresh up their brains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Housing Situation in the Bamenda Urban Space, Challenges and the Way Forward

Nformi Beatrice Maluh, Balgah Sounders Nguh, Jude Ndizifon Kimengsi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430188

Housing is a fundamental human need, until now, making sure that every person has access to good quality housing is a grave challenge facing Bamenda Urban Space. This paper seeks to examine the housing situation and challenges to housing development in Bamenda Urban Space. The study adopted the mix method approach which involves triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. Primary data were obtained from field observations, interviews and questionnaires administered to households. Secondary data were obtained from relevant official documents, published and unpublished sources. Satellite imageries and ArcGIS were used to describe the pattern of growth in built-up areas between 1986 and 2019. Data from questionnaire was entered using Epi Data Version 3.1, analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science Standard version 21.0 and presented in the form of tables, figures, plates and maps. Findings on housing situation revealed that, although the housing structures has improved, the housing designs, technology and level of maintenance are still low. The irregularity and unreliability in water supply, electricity supply and waste management systems have turned most households to alternative sources with poor quality. Urbanisation and urban growth are occurring without a concurrent increase in housing supply resulting to congestion, deterioration of basic services, pollution, inaccessibility, social vices, lack of privacy, poor ventilation and natural disasters amongst others. The paper, therefore, calls for the rehabilitation and renovation of dilapidated housing structures, provision of basic services, construction of low-cost housing, encourage financial institutions to grant loans to real estate developers at low interest rate.

Open Access Review Article

Nonylphenol and Its Ethoxylates in Water Environment

Kouakou Yao Salomon, N’doufou Gnosseith Huberson Claver, Akpo Kouakou Sylvain

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430186

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including Alkylphenols and their ethoxylates, precisely Nonylphenol and its ethoxylates, are organic molecules that are of greatest current concern because of their ability to have a toxic or an inhibitory effect on living organisms by their presence or accumulation in environment such as water, sediments, soils and atmosphere. They are used in the production of surfactants, industrial formulations, pharmaceuticals, personal care products etc... The primary objective of this article is to review the literature concerning classification of Nonylphenol and its ethoxylates based on physical and chemical characteristics and technical feasibility of their usages. It also involved different ways of their introduction into environment, analytical methods (HPLC, GC-MS, GC-MS-TOF) for their environmental detection and quantification, and finally methods for their removal. Technologies proposed for nonylphenol and its ethoxylates degradation includes biodegradation, physical processes, conventional and non-conventional adsorption-oriented processes and photodegradation processes including photocatalytic oxidation which have a potential to reach complete mineralization.