Open Access Short Research Article

Application of Human-biometeorological Comfort Conditions in Köppen-geiger Climate type for Different Cities of Gangetic West Bengal

Jit Biswas

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130190

Gangetic West Bengal (GWB) belongs to Aw climate type after Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC). Human thermal comfort (HTC) and vapour pressure (VP) conditions together can represent human-biometeorological comfort conditions. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is used for indexing HTC. 3-hr PET and VP values are calculated based on hourly meteorological data of six selected cities for 18 years (2000-2017) time period. RayMan model has been applied to calculate hourly PETs and VPs. PET and VP data are grouped by frequencies and time period into several classes. Spatial distribution and dispersion characters of biometeorological comfort conditions are measured by statistical techniques. Thermally heat stress is very high in Apr and May. Months of winter indicate the presence of different thermal conditions. Annual comfort is maximum in the coastal city when stressful condition mostly prevails over Krishnanagar (KNG). Puruliya (PRA) shows the driest condition. The obtained information can be applied in planning, healthcare, and tourism sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Faecal Sludge from Pit Latrines to Guide Management Solutions in Cape Coast, Ghana

Eric Awere, Peter Appiah Obeng, Panin Asirifua Obeng, Alessandra Bonoli

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130189

This study characterised faecal sludge from public ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines in Cape Coast to assess their potential impact on the environment and to guide the selection of appropriate management solutions. The paper also estimates the amount of beneficial resources wasted due to the lack of a faecal sludge (FS) treatment facility. The study employed a quantitative design involving laboratory analysis of FS sampled from 13 purposively sampled VIP latrines in Cape Coast, Ghana. Sampling activities were carried out in January and February (dry season) and September and October (wet season) of 2015. Samples of unhardened pit latrine sludge were collected from all 13 pit latrines for quality assessment. Physicochemical parameters (moisture content, COD, BOD5, total solids and total volatile solids) of homogenous samples from the surface, middle and bottom of pit contents were analysed following standard procedures. Apart from total solids, all other parameters decreased with the depth of sampling and the differences were statistically significant (p<.01). Seasonal variation in faecal sludge characteristics was not significant except for BOD5. A high COD: BOD5 (3.8-4.5:1) shows faecal sludge that is characterised by slowly degradable organic matter. Even though the FS at the bottom of the pits was found to be the most stabilized, its characteristic parameters indicate that discharging it into the environment without any further treatment would pose a significant threat to public health.  The characteristics suggest that co-composting would be the most appropriate option for treating the FS and also underscore the fact that the VIP latrine technology is not suitable for use as a public toilet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Mineral Composition and Sources of Himalayan Neogene Sediments Occurring along the Garu-Likabali Road Section, West Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Roshmi Boruah, Jayanta Jivan Laskar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130191

The Neogene sedimentary sequence of the Arunachal Himalayas is represented by the Dafla, Subansiri and Kimin Formations. Their systematic heavy mineral analysis along the Garu-Likabali Road section indicates that the heavy mineral assemblage is composed of fifteen heavy mineral varieties comprising of andalusite, biotite, chloritoid, chlorite, epidote, garnet, hornblende, hypersthene, kyanite, muscovite, rutile, sphene, staurolite, tourmaline and zircon, besides opaque minerals. The assemblage points towards a complex sediment provenance for the Neogene sedimentary sequences with sediment inputs from pre-existing igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The boundary between the Dafla and Subansiri Formation in the region can be demarcated on the basis of disappearance of Hypersthene in the heavy mineral suite of the older Dafla Formation as well as appearance and persistence of staurolite in the same Formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socioeconomic Impact of Development Projects on the Livelihood of Farmers: A Case Study of the Bui Dam Hydroelectric Project

Amankwah Emmanuel, Awafo Edward, Atta-Darkwa Thomas

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130192

The development of major social projects such as hydroelectric dams, roads and mining often result in the loss of properties and sometimes relocation of the affected people or communities. This paper examined the impact of the Bui Dam Hydroelectric project on the livelihood of the people affected, especially farmers in the Bono Region of Ghana. The paper also reviewed the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) report of the project in line with the Environmental Protection Agency requirement, examined the compensation and the living conditions of the farmers in the affected communities. Interviews and focus group discussions of farmers in four communities were conducted which was later followed by the administration of questionnaires to seventy-five (75) farmers. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and Excel software for the development of charts. The review of the ESIA report of the Bui dam showed that an extensive ESIA was conducted with only few lapses outlined in the text. The interviews and the questionnaires  revealed  that  the  farmers  who  were  relocated  have  problems  with  land acquisition, soil fertility and irrigation facilities when they were moved to their new location. There were also concerns about inadequate payment of compensations and unfulfilled promises. However, about 97.3% of the respondents were comfortable at their new location because of the proximity to health services, access to good roads, nice buildings and provision of some basic social amenities such as light and water, as well as possible business and employment opportunities. The paper makes suggestions for improving compensations and resettlement schemes in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Small Scales Dynamics Inferred from Tidal Measurements to Mitigate Daily Floodings in the City of Douala: A Case Study of the Besseke's Flood Drain

Besack Felix, Onguene Raphael, Ebonji Seth Rodrigue, Oben Mbeng Lawrence, Kouandji Bekoumb Joseph Betsaleel, Sone Essoh Willy, Tomedi Eyango Minette

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 45-62
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130193

The recently constructed Besseke’s flood drain is always filled with water due to individual or combined effect of the tide, urbanization drainage, underground plumes and precipitations runoffs. This study focused on the analysis of small scales dynamics inferred from short term tidal measurements to mitigate the daily flooding in the Besseke’s flood drain. The methodology used is based on field measurements observation. The sampling of water level was conducted during two (02) different tidal regimes in May 2019. The volume of brackish water moving in and out of the Besseke’s flood drain was calculated using the formula of O’Brien. The results showed that Spring conditions had greater amplitudes than Neap tide conditions. During Spring tides, the tidal prism that passed in the midsection of the Besseke’s flood drain (S4) was 3.5 × 101 m3. This means that only a negligible amount of the incoming brackish water reaches the Besseke’s flood drain, amplifies and causes the daily flooding. The unexpected stronger amplitudes and dynamics observed in S4 could be due to its sub estuary nature. Furthermore, the percentage composition of water in this section, showed that the fraction of brackish water changes from 85.7% during Spring tide to 77.8% in the Neap tide conditions. The overall spatial evolution revealed that, the trend in tidal prism (during Spring conditions) was (S0) > (S2) > (S1) > (S3) > (S4) with corresponding values of 2.1 × 104, 1.3 ×104, 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 102 and 3.5 × 101 m3 respectively. Finally, Tidal prism and Cross-sectional area showed a perfect correlation (r2 = 0.96). The best fitted Cross-sectional area-Tidal prism relationship was obtained in S3 (Market) during Spring tide condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Effect of Cement Dust from Cement Factory on Elemental Properties of Some Cultivated Crops, Obajana, Kogi State, Nigeria

N. O. Olatunbosun, B. A. Sawa, A. Jibrin, A. E. Ilori

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 63-69
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130194

This study assessed the effects of cement dust pollution on cultivated crops in Obajana, Kogi State, Nigeria. Plant samples used were obtained directly from cultivated lands in Obajana closed and far away from the cement industry within the community. The 12 plant samples collected were analyzed at Soil Science Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria. Mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variability and T-test were used in analyzing the data. The results revealed that except in the case of potassium concentration (2.21) the maize controls site nitrogen (1.01) and phosphorus (0.23) concentrations are higher than the polluted site (0.21 and 0.15 for nitrogen and phosphorus respectively). Results also showed that the 3 element (nitrogen (0.784), phosphorus (0.38), and potassium (2.42) concentrations studied in the cassava plant of the polluted site were higher than those obtained in the control site with 0.31, 0.36 and 1.83 for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It was concluded that there was significant difference in the elemental properties of maize potassium only but in other elements and in cassava plant there was no significant difference. Dusts emitted from the factory have affected the elemental properties of maize and cassava farm lands that are proximate to the cement factory in the study area. The study recommends that the propone 5th plant by the cement company operating in the study area should be diverted to another settlement in order to boost agricultural produce from Obajana community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Non-migrant Communities to Geo-hazard Threats in the Mount Cameroon Volcanic Region

Sunday Shende Kometa, Kang Edwin Mua

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 70-83
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130195

Whilst the issue of migration has received widespread and international debates on the geometric number of people displaced daily from one region to another, the environmental unfriendliness, socio-economic and political situations have been accused for the progressive migrant trend in most parts of the world. Bearing in mind these unprecedented situations, the tendency had always been the decision to migrate or stay to cope with adverse situation. It is against these mix feelings that the study investigates the perception of non-migrant communities to geo-hazard threats along the Mount Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). The study made use of both primary and secondary sources of data. Interviews were conducted with some traditional authorities, officials of the Limbe Botanic Garden, government officials and municipal authorities on the environmental impacts associated with the decision of the non-migrants in vulnerable zones. From the interview conducted a representative survey of households was then undertaken to gather the opinion of non-migrant households within the geo-hazard environment. This was aided by the use of some 120 questionnaires distributed to on-spot households exposed to geo-hazards within the Mount Cameroon mobile region. 120 questionnaires were administered and distributed to 5 sampled communities using random a sampling technique. The Mount Cameroon Volcanic Region alongside the location of communities were mapped out using ArcGIS. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation results revealed that communities have strong perception of geo-hazards despite the threats. About 80% of the communities perceived the occurrence of such hazards as mixed blessings especially the associated benefits from fertile volcanic and alluvial soils as well as floodwaters in depressions used for agricultural activities. The study further states that the myths of households to geohazard occurrence kills the science and technology as well as the resilient strategies to such geo-hazards. While the socio-cultural mechanism remains a winding driver of on-spot location in hazard-prone zones, the future of community safety should not undermine human knack responses to geo-hazards. The study recommends proper planning and adaptive measures along this volcanic line such that the traditional and cultural myths of the communities should be integrated with the modern and technological structures to resist or minimize the effects of nature on the non-migrant communities within the flanks of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flood Hazard Zoning-mapping in Sigi District Central Sulawesi Using Geographic Information System

Lilik Prihadi Utomo

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 84-93
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130196

Flooding is a disaster that every year occurred in Sigi District. The research purpose is finding out the flood hazard zoning in the Sigi District. The type of research is descriptive qualitative, with a region complex approach. The variables used are slope, soil type, rainfall, and land use. Data analysis used overlay, scoring, and layout techniques. The result showed that Mapping of flood hazard zoning in Sigi Districts is divided into four zones, namely; 1) Zone IV is a zone with a very high level of flood hazard category, this zone has an area of 24505.62 Ha or 4.82%; 2) zone III, namely the zone with Danger flood hazard category has an area of 131587.86 Ha or 25.91%; 3) zone II, which is in the less dangerous category has an area of 350605.76 Ha or 69.03%; zone I with the non-hazardous category has an area of 1193.62 Ha or 0.24%.