Open Access Original Research Article

Examining the Relationship between Commercial Charcoal Production and Socioeconomic Variables in Nasarawa State, North-Central Nigeria

Ekpo Abraham Salamatu, Ozim Chukwunonso Emmanuel, Adamu Tanko Ogah

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330206

Charcoal is no longer a source of energy to only rural households but also a demanded commodity in urban areas around the world which has resulted in the commercialization of its production, particularly rural dwellers of developing countries such as Nigeria. Given the observed growing significance of charcoal in rural and urban livelihoods in Nasarawa State, this paper examined the relationship between commercial charcoal production and socioeconomic characteristics of the people involved in the activity. The study employed descriptive survey using both qualitative and quantitative data drawn from primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was administered to 450 respondents randomly sampled from commercial charcoal producers drawn from 6 communities and 3 LGAs of Nasarawa State. Interviews and Focus Group Discussions were also conducted and the data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics in Microsoft Excel and SPSS (version 23). Results showed that commercial charcoal producers in the study area were mostly between 21 and 50 years with dominance of those between 31 and 40 (30.9%) while those above 50 years were least represented (6. 9%).There was slight dominance of women (52.4%) among the producers and the they were mostly primary (44%) and secondary (35.6%) school certificate. Majority (48.2%) had household size of 4 – 6 and more than half (52.9%) were married and earned 20,000 naira and below on monthly basis (46.4%). There is strong relationship between the socioeconomic status of the respondents and commercial charcoal production in the study area. Their socioeconomic status proved to have served significant motivation to their rising involvement in the activity. Also alternative economic activities that guarantees quick monetary rewards and is all age and gender engaging as well as requires no special skill and huge capitals for a start, should be planned for and introduced in the study area by the State Government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Industrial Wastewater Irrigation on Heavy Metal Deposition in Farm Soils of Bhaluka Area, Bangladesh

Faisal Islam, H. M. Zakir, A. Rahman, Shaila Sharmin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 19-31
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330207

The study was conducted to determine heavy metal contents in industrial wastewater and contaminated soils of Bhaluka, Mymensingh and to assess their pollution level. A total of 9 industrial wastewater and 12 contaminated farm soil samples were collected directly from the farmers’ fields of Bhaluka area and analysed for this study. Considering EC, salinity and TDS, 56 to 89% wastewater samples were found problematic for long term irrigation. The concentration of CO3, HCO3 and Cl in wastewater ranged from 0.20-1.60, 2.0-11.2 and 1.30-4.79 me L-1, respectively and the content of Ca, Mg, Na and K in wastewater ranged from 16.03-52.10, 4.86-21.87, 101.98-678.90 and 5.59-48.63 mg L-1, respectively. The study results revealed that all wastewater samples were found unsuitable for irrigation in respect of CO3, HCO3 and K. Among the heavy metals studied, Pb, Cd and Fe concentrations in all wastewater samples and Mn content in 5 samples were found above than the acceptable limit for irrigation. The concentration of Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Mn and Fe in wastewater irrigated soils of Bhaluka industrial area ranged from 50.48 to 448.56, 47.22 to 83.65, 19.13 to 328.23, 42.37 to 77.96, 22.93 to 43.86, 0.70 to 1.40, 161.5 to 341.7 and 38105 to 65399 μg g-1, respectively. Considering geoaccumulation index, the Igeo values for Pb and Cd for all locations of the study area exhibited positive values (0.495< Igeo <1.624), that means Igeo class: 1-2, indicate moderately polluted soil quality. On the other hand, as regards to enrichment factor (EFc), 9 locations for Pb, 5 for Cd, 1 for Zn and 1 for Cu had EFc values > 5.0, indicate contaminated soil quality. The study concluded that industrial wastewater used for irrigation was directly linked with the heavy metals deposition in the farm soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Palynomorphs and Age Characterization of Rock Succession in Well X-1, OML 108, Offshore Niger Delta Nigeria

Anthonia Nwaneze Asadu, Solomon Emeke Odumoso

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330208

Palynological studies in Nigeria are mainly confined to the Tertiary Niger Delta, where several studies have been carried out for the discovery of natural oil and gas in this particular basin during late 1950s. The accuracy and profitability of the exploration process can be enhanced by the micropaleontological monitoring through the palynological analysis of ditch cuttings for age determination. Fifty ditch cutting samples from intervals 8040 ft and 11010 ft of Well X-1, OML 108, Ukpokiti field, offshore Niger Delta Nigeria were analyzed for their palynofloral content, in a view to establish the biozonation framework for the purpose of age characterization of the rock succession. Palynological sample processing and analysis followed standard methods of treatments with different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid and organic acid for digestion of carbonates, removal of silicates and washing or centrifuging for concentration of the palynomorphs respectively in order to liberate the palynomorphs from the extraneous organic matter in the rock matrix. The palynofloral analysis yielded a total number of forty-three (43) pollen, seven (7) spores and one dinoflagellate cyst, from which four subzones based on palynofloral assemblage of marker species, their stratigraphic tops and base including their abundance and diversity were recognized. The zones are from youngest to oldest: Stereisporites sp, Racemonocolpiteshians, Verrutricolporitesrotundiporus and Retibrevitricolporitesobodoensis/protundens zones corresponding with pollen sub zones:P850-830, P820, P780 and P770respectively, indicatingLate Miocene to Middle Miocene age.

In conclusion, the palyno – zones of this study compare well with the pollen zones of [3], therefore shows that the rock succession was deposited during the Middle to Late Miocene epoch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrometeorological Study of Saturated Vapour Pressure (SVP) of Warri, Nigeria

Y. S. Onifade, V. B. Olaseni

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 42-49
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330209

The amount of water vapour present in the air is indirectly expressed through vapour pressure and for any given temperature there is a limit for water vapour that can be held by air. If the air is holding water vapour which is equal to the maximum that it can hold at a given temperature, then the air is said to be saturated. Hydrometeorological study was carried out using vapour pressure (VP) and maximum temperature data for Warri through 2009 – 2018 (10 years) Saturation Vapour Pressure (SVP) were estimated. A graph is established showing the relationship between the Saturation Vapour Pressure (SVP) and the temperature also the graphical representation showing variational trend of SVP and VP were plotted. The study shows the dew point (Td) ranging from 29.9°C to 31.5°C which explained the likely rainfall at any temperature below Td. The study also confirmed increase in SVP bringing increase in Temperature and the variational trend shows the same pattern all through.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microfaunal Signals and Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Sediments in Well Z-1, Offshore Dahomey Basin, South-Western Nigeria

Anthonia Nwanese Asadu, Charles Ojonuba Ameh

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 50-61
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330210

Fifty ditch cutting rock samples from well Z-1, OPL 310 offshore Dahomey basin, south western Nigeria were analyzed for their microfaunal and lithofacies content for the purpose of reconstructing the environment of deposition. Standard techniques of foraminifera slide processing and analysis was followed for the recovery of foraminifera while the gamma ray log complemented the rock samples for the lithofacies analysis. The lithological analysis revealed two lithofacies units in a generally fining upward sequence. The basal sandstone unit is characteristically milky white to brownish, coarse-pebbly grained, sub-angular to round and poorly to well sort with intercalation of shale. This unit is overlain by light to dark grey, moderately hard and non-fissile shale/mudstone sequence with intercalation of sand. Accessory mineral assemblage present in the formations includes mica flakes, glauconite pellets, carbonaceous detritus and ferruginous materials. The basal sandstone unit belong to the Oshosun Formation while the upper shaly unit is typical of Afowo Formation. Microfaunal study showed good recovery of abundant and well diversified planktic and benthic foraminiferal species. Forty-two (42) planktic, sixty-five (65) benthic calcareous and one benthonic arenaceous foraminiferal species were recovered. Micropaleontologically, Paleoenvironmental deductions were based primarily on the assemblage, abundance and diversity of benthic foraminiferal species and presence or absence of planktic foraminifera. Accessory mineral presence also aided the interpretations. Integration of lithological and micropaleontological synthesis enhanced the delineation of two environmental subzones over the analyzed interval, the outer neritic and the upper bathyal depositional settings corresponding to Afowo and Oshosun Formation respectively. A lowstand prograding wedge which is a good exploration target offshore was recognized between intervals 3400 ft to 3500 ft. In conclusion, the rock succession studied, penetrated Afowo and Oshosun Formations, and were deposited in an environment ranging from outer neritic to upper bathyal settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximal Redevelopment of Brownfield and Derelict Sites Near Institutions of Higher Education

Berkley N. King Jr., Carol J. Johnson, Sherry Herron, Leroy Hamilton Jr.

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 62-79
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330211

It is critical to educate higher education faculty about the importance of redeveloping brownfields into usable spaces for campus expansion. While there are many studies on the success of brownfield redevelopment, research is limited on how professors’ perceptions on brownfield redevelopment can help their institutions to impact community initiatives and promote collaborative, environmental efforts. Hence, a need to design methods to collect, record and analyze professors’ perceptions became fundamental in capturing the voices of participants and ensuring the accuracy of their responses. The first set of analysis methods included categorizations, descriptions and interpretations of qualitative data. The secondary method of analysis utilized descriptive statistics to measure the most important indicators that influence professors’ perceptions to redevelop brownfield sites near their campus communities.

Pseudonyms are used for the three universities across Jefferson County in the State of Alabama which provided access to their professors. Findings from the study showed that professors from two universities were knowledgeable and aware of the sociological and economic challenges in low income communities where brownfields are geographically located. Findings also indicated that Eta-One University was a recipient of an EPA Region 4 grant that focused on educating low income communities associated with the presence of brownfield sites in their area. Alpha-One University was eager to establish a special partnership initiative. Although Gamma-One University was located in a high crime and low-income community with potential brownfield sites, the faculty showed no interest in participating in the study. Therefore, challenges and factors that Gamma-One University faced were undetermined.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lithofacies, Palynostratigraphy and Paleoecology of the Outcropping Rock Succession at Ogbunike Old Toll Gate, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

E. N. Onuigbo, A. U. Okoro, C. M. Okolo, H. C. Okeke

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 80-99
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330212

Aim: Sedimentary succession exposed at Ogbunike old toll gate is part of the outcropping sediments of the Niger Delta Basin and its age is controversial. The outcrop was studied for the purpose of age determination, lithostratigraphic placement and interpretation of paleoecology, paleoclimatology and depositional environment.

Methodology: Lithofacies and biofacies analyses were integrated in the study.

Results: Thirteen lithofacies identified include; bioturbated sandstone, ripple laminated sandstone, ripple laminated claystone, dark shale, ferruginized sandstone, carbonaceous sandstone, greyish shale, very fine sandstone, mudstone, massive claystone, coarse sandstone, cross bedded sandstone and flaser bedded sandstone lithofacies. Four lithofacies associations consisting of lower shoreface to inner neritic, fluvial channel, lagoonal/mixed flat and subtidal sandwave associations were delineated. Middle Eocene age is assigned to the succession based on the high abundance of marker pollen such as Margocolporites foveolatus, Ctenelophonidites costatus, Monocolpites marginatus, Retibrevitricolporites triangulatus, Proxapertites cursus, Bombacacidites sp. and common occurrences of Scrabratisporites simpliformis, Anacolosidites luteoides, Psilatricolporites crassus, Gabonisporis viaourouxii, Striatricolporites catatumbus and Retistephanocolporites williamsi. These co-occur with Cordosphaeridium cantharellus. Palynofloral group recovered are dominated by mangrove and palm pollen. Pteridophyte spores are also abundant whereas the hinterland pollen group is very low. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages of Textularia, Miliammina,Ammobaculites Haplophragmoides, Fursenkoina, Heterolepa, Reophax, Nodosaria, Florilus, Uvigerina, Cibicides and Bolivina recovered from the dark shale suggest deposition in an inner neritic setting. Trace fossil suite of Skolithos- Cruziana ichnofacies is an attribute of the sedimentary units.

Conclusion: The sedimentary succession is part of the Ameki Group (Nanka Formation) deposited under varied environmental setting. Paleoclimate is tropical.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Plants Growing on Bitumen and Gypsum Mine Soils, in Southwestern, Nigeria for Mine Reclamation

A. O. Fatoye, F. S. Omotayo, S. A. Akinyele

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 100-103
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i330213

Human activities increase the concentration of heavy metals in the environment from year to year. Therefore, decontamination is very important for the ecological restoration. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of Platycerium coronarium (Fern),Vernonia amigdalina (Bitter Leaf), Chromolenaodorata, Talinumfruticosum (Water Leaf) for the removal of Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu in the goldmine tailings.Bioaccumulation factor of all element are lower than one which indicated accumulator. Translocation factor of Cd, Ni and Cr more than one and hence, Platycerium coronarium and Chromolenaodorata could be considered as potentially useful for remedying Cd, Ni and Cr contaminated soil.