Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigation of Seismicity in Parts of North Central Nigeria, Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data

A. Alkali, D. U. Alhassan, O. U. Akpan, A. A. Adetona, K. A. Salako, E. E. Udensi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430214

Qualitative analysis of Aeromagnetic data of parts of north central Nigeria had been carried out with the aim to delineate seismic prone areas. The study area is bounded with latitude 9. 00o to 10. 00oN and longitude 7.00o to 9.00oE with an estimated total area of 24,200 km2. Vertical derivatives and upward continuation filters were used to enhances long wavelength anomalies which could give preliminary information about the magnetic structures present in the study area. The total magnetic intensity map shows both positive and negative anomalies with susceptibility ranging from 33487.7 nT to 33800.9 nT. The high magnetic susceptibilities dominated in the basement region around the north-eastern and north-western parts of the study area which corresponds to Naraguta, Jemma and Kafanchan area. Based on the geology of the area this is attributed to granite, schist and migmatite rocks. The low magnetic values are made of sediment deposition also dominates the south-western part of the study area, corresponding to Abuja and Gitata. The area with magnetic susceptibility values ranging between 33506.6 nT and 33653.8 nT indicates alluvium deposite around Bishini and Kachia area. Lineament from First Vertical Derivative trend in the northeast-southwest and east-west directions, which is an extension from Romanche Fracture Zone. Majority of this lineament trends in the same directions as the Romanche Fault Line which continues at 25 km and 30 km into n inferred closure within the study area which is trending along north-west direction. This, closure occurs probably because of the existence of the paleo fracture zone (Romanche Fracture Zone) within the study area. At 40 km and at 80 km a regional trend in the NE-SW direction in (porphyritic) basement rocks. At the northeast and southeastern part of the area which is made up of basement complex that corresponds to areas around Gitata, Kafanchaan and Jemma are prone to tectonic activities while the southwestern part of the area around Abuja is seismic free. It is suggested that those lineaments identified, most especially at the southeastern part could be the reason for the shaking of the subsurface which result into earth tremors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Analysis of Geophysical Data for Road Networks Sub Base Lithology Integrity Assessment Case Study in Crystalline Basement Complex, Southwestern Nigeria

I. A. Adeyemo, A. A. Akinlalu, K. A. Mogaji, O. O. Odumosu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 15-28
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430215

Magnetics and Electrical resistivity methods were used in the evaluation of the subsurface integrity of a 2500 m segment of Ipinsa road off the Ilesha-Akure expressway adjacent to the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria in order to provide guidelines for the authority whenever the road is to be constructed. The road was investigated using geophysical prospecting methods involving Magnetics profiling and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique. The magnetic data were analysed first by taking care of diurnal variation and the results were presented as relative magnetic. The VES results were presented as geoelectric sections. The results from the two methods were stacked for easy correlation. The results from the Magnetics method study shows the presence of near-surface linear geologic structures and of varying length, depth, and altitude at different distances (350, 550, 650, 840, 870, 900, 1080 and 1160 m) and depths (5, 12, 13, 15, 15.5, 16, 17 and 19 m) respectively, which suggest the probable fracture zones that are inimical to the foundation of the road subgrade. The vertical electrical sounding survey were conducted at points of anomaly and non-anomalous zones based on the magnetic survey results. This is done to further delineate the fracture zones and correlate the results to get enough information of the subsurface. The corresponding geoelectric results delineated weathered/fractured bedrock with resistivity range of 222 - 412 Ωm at distances 650, 800 - 900 and 1080 - 1160 m along Traverses A and B. Likewise at distances 1380 - 1600 m, 2040 m, 2240 m, 2260 m and 2540 m along traverses’ C and D. The integrity assessment of the Ipinsa road network sub base lithology was successfully assessed using the geophysical modeled results and possible fractured bedrock and saturated/clayey sub soil material zones that are inimical to road stability were delineated. The research findings are valuable for precise decision in road infrastructural design.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Stabilization of Black Cotton Clay and Laterite Soil Using Drycon Powder for Suitability as Construction Materials

Larry Pax Chegbeleh, Frank Siaw Ackah

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 29-39
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430216

This paper used drycon powder (DP) as stabilization additive for improving the engineering properties of problem soils, specifically, black cotton clay (BCC) and laterite soil (LS), for use as a road construction material. The study was carried out in some parts of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, through the conduction of index properties tests such as gradation, Atterberg limits, California bearing ratio (CBR), Compaction characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the problem soils. CBR, Atterberg limits and environmental quality tests were specifically conducted on DP stabilized soils for comparative analysis. Gradation results revealed 38% fines for BCC and 14% fines for LS. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of quartz and montmorillonite in BCC, and quartz and kaolinite in LS. Generally, the results of the various tests conducted revealed that DP has the potential of improving the engineering properties of problem soils with significant strength improvement. It can also be inferred from the results that, DP is environmental friendly soil stabilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydro-geologic, Corrosivity and Geotechnical Implications of Geoelectric Sounding Survey at FUTA Cooperative Housing Estate, Ilaramokin near Akure Southwestern Nigeria

I. A. Adeyemo, V. O. Iwuala, T. S. Fadare, E. O. Otayemi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430217

Aim: Groundwater potential evaluation, corrosivity and geotechnical competence investigations of the subsurface layers were carried at FUTA Cooperative Housing Estate, Ilaramokin near Akure Southwestern Nigeria in order to facilitate proper positioning of facilities within the estate.

Methodology: A total of 14 vertical electrical sounding (VES) data was acquired across the estate using Schlumberger array.

Results: The VES survey results delineated 3 - 5 geoelectric layers across the estate which corresponds to the topsoil, weathered layer, partially weathered basement, partially fractured basement and the presumed fresh bedrock. The groundwater potential map of the estate revealed that the groundwater potential is moderate (GWP of 0.5 - 0.75) to high (GWP of 0.75 - 1.0) in the western and southeastern parts of the estate. The depth slice corrosivity maps (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 m) of the estate indicated that the corrosivity of the subsurface layers within the estate reduces with depth. The 0.5 m depth slice isoresistivity map of the estate indicates that the central and a segment of the southwestern parts of the estate are characterized with low resistivity (50 - 100 Ωm) indicating incompetence, while the estate flanks (west and east) are considered to be moderately competent (100 - 350 Ωm). Likewise, the 1.0 m depth slice isoresistivity map of the estate reveals that the central and western parts of the estate are characterized with low resistivity (50 - 100 Ωm) suggesting incompetent layer, while the northern, southern and eastern parts of the estate are moderately competent (100 - 350 Ωm).

Conclusion: These results suggested that structural failures can be expected on any engineering structures sited at the central, northern, southern and eastern parts of the estate. Groundwater efforts should be concentrated at the western and southeastern parts of the estate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indigenous System of Soil Fertility Management in a Typical Farm Settlement in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria

Kehinde, F. Akinloye, Florence, Y. Akinloye, Oluwagbenga, O. I. Orimoogunje, Benjamin, O. Adeleke

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430218

Lives on earth depends on soil for survival and functioning as soil provides the basis for livelihood, however, this essential resource has been totally degraded and depleted due to human mismanagement and thus hampering its productivity potential. Therefore, this study focused on the knowledge of the peasant farmer’s indigenous system of soil fertility management with a view to documenting and comparing the indigenous and scientific knowledge adopted by farmer in assessing soil nutrient availability status in Ago-Owu farm settlement. The physico-chemical analysis of the soil samples for soil characterization and land dynamics are in agreement  with the indigenous knowledge in operation in the study area. The study concluded that it is essential to integrate the traditional knowledge base as a complimentary component to the modern methods for effective management of soil fertility as an essential resource.

Open Access Original Research Article

Problematic of Rattan Resource Management: Conservation and Post-harvest Concerns in Bamenda Town and Its Environs

Gilbert Zechia Mofor, Nadine Yemelong Temgoua, Ndamsa Dickson Thomas

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 80-92
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430220

The use of durable forest resources in urban areas has raised the question of link between conservation and usage patterns. Population growth in Cameroon urban areas has continued to trigger constant demand for forest resources notably for rattan resources. Owing to the thriving domestic use and trade indicators, it is observed that, the furniture processors have been experiencing considerable demand of rattan products. It was pathetic to observe that, though the whole chain of rattan dependable activities have become an integral part of livelihood strategy for many urban communities, it is without any regulatory rearmament. Such scenario has until recently been ostensibly clear that in Bamenda town is an epitome for non-awareness of the exact species used, ecological attitudes, post-harvest losses, innovative technologies and trade letdown. In the context of such lack of awareness, most socioeconomic and conservation benchmarks have remained trapped in inappropriate operations. It is in this light that, Bamenda town displays a range of concerns about the rattan resources management stakes and challenges. Thus, the main objective of this paper attempts to harness suitable socioeconomic and ecological strategies to ensure sustainability with significant potential for the rattan sources to the thriving investors’ livelihood. The study therefore, explores the stakeholders’ treasure on rattan resources derivatives and perceptions on conservation and socioeconomic standing in Bamenda town, which is a heavily dealing place. The study made use of primary and secondary sources to collect necessary data. The results indicate that, they are a chain of rattan resource investors, multiples sources of raw materials and local rattan workspaces. In addition, the paper established that, there are no conservation awareness and visions, no innovative technologies, insufficient basic knowledge about self-regulatory mechanism for informal trade on a sound rattan management as well as no veritable institutional support structures to strengthen the rattan sector. Therefore, imperiling this activity into a blur future given the gaps observed in the sector. Based on these challenges, the study has proposed pertinent concerns, which have some supportive regimented policies to awareness, sustainable conservation, production and trading trends management for livelihood of the rattan dealers in Bamenda town and beyond.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability Assessment for Volume, Biomass and Carbon Stock in Cedrus deodara (Roxb) G.Don. Forests of Garhwal Himalaya

Rathod Digvijaysinh, Yogesh Kumar, Gaurav Chand Ramola, Dhaval Prajapati, C. S. Dhanai, V. P. Khanduri

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 93-103
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430221

Deodar is typically gregarious and is usually found in pure stands. It is one of the most important timber species in the forests of North Indian Himalayas. The objective of the present study was the assessment of variation in volume and biomass along with the carbon holding capacity of different deodar forests. The present study was undertaken in ten different forests sites, assessed by laying out three 0.1 ha sample plots randomly on each location. Total enumeration of trees within the sample plot was done by measuring girth and height of all the trees. Further, data collected from stand were computed for dbh, basal area, volume, stand density and canopy cover. The above ground biomass densities (AGBD), below ground biomass density (BGBD), total biomass density (TBD), total carbon density (TCD) were examined for variation of biomass and carbon stock. The results derived from field data during the study revealed that the values range from 42.10 to 57.07 cm (diameter at breast height), 1.37 to 2.84 m2 trees-1 (basal area), 19.68 to 37.64 m (height), 1.44 m3 tree-1 to 4.27 m3 tree-1 (volume), 227 to 407 individual ha-1 (stand density) and 57.91% to 80.60% (canopy cover) respectively. The values of AGBD (428.57 to 1279.51 Mg ha-1), BGBD (97.41 to 256.14 Mg ha-1), TBD (525.98 to 1535.65 Mg ha-1), and TCD (767.83 to 262.99 Mg ha-1) were recorded in different study sites and highest values was observed in Kanasar-I site. On the basis of above results it can be concluded that the healthy stand growth means presence of trees in all diameter classes. The Kanasar-I has more prominent capacity to storage biomass and carbon stock. Deodar being a slow growing conifer will provide a long term and high carbon storage than broadleaf species forest. Therefore, protecting deodar forest would have the largest impact, per unit area, on reducing carbon emission from deforestation.

Open Access Review Article

Cataclysmic Geomagnetic Field Collapse: Global Security Concerns

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 61-79
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i430219

In 2015, Tyler J. Williams authored “Cataclysmic Polarity Shift: Is U. S. National Security Prepared for the Next Geomagnetic Pole Reversal?” That document provides an extremely cogent and thorough description of some of the risks to national security and infrastructure expected to result from a geomagnetic polarity reversal. However, it describes geomagnetic field generation solely as currently promoted by the geophysics community which is based upon old ideas, circa 1940s-1960s, that are taken to be factual without any attempt to understand their limitations or to evaluate their validity in light of subsequent scientific developments. Moreover, the security concerns Williams described are relevant to humanity globally. Here I have reviewed the historical development of those old ideas, pointed out their problematic nature, and reviewed subsequent published advances that overcome their inherent problems and lead to a better understanding of the geophysics related to geomagnetic polarity reversals, geomagnetic excursions, and, at some yet unknown time, the permanent demise of the geomagnetic field. Mechanisms of rapid geomagnetic field collapse, both natural and potentially human-induced, are described. The present state of nuclear georeactor activity, whether geomagnetic field collapse leads to increased georeactor output, and whether it is likely to trigger earthquakes and volcano eruptions are yet unknown matters of seriously troubling human security concerns. Global security preparedness, even though addressed by sovereign nations, should be predicated upon the latest and most correct scientific understanding. In some areas that may be the case, but in the scientific areas described here there are clearly problems. The inherent problems, I submit, do not result from inadequate funding, but from inadequate methodologies, expectations and responsibilities of scientists, their national and parent institutions, publishers, and respective funding-agencies.