Open Access Original Research Article

Regressive Shoreface Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-Basin Northern Benue trough N. E. Nigeria

B. Shettima, M. Bukar, B. Shettima, B. Shettima, H. I. kamale, I. A. Yerima, A. O. Umaru

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530222

The characterization of lithofacies of the Yolde Formation at Briyel town in the Gongola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough indicated coarsening upwards cycles composed transitional succession of six lithofacies that comprises of trough cross-beds, planar cross-beds, massive beds, ripple laminations, parallel laminations and mudstone. This coarsening and thickening upward symmetry is defined by a densely bioturbated mud dominated lower part transitionally grading into heterolithic interval composed thinly bedded sandstone and mudstones both of which developed below fair-weather wave base. This is capped by a succession of moderately bioturbated trough-planar crossbedded sandstone with poly-directional paleocurrent system. These assemblages reflect shoreface deposits and devoid of hummocky cross-stratification therein may account for a moderate wave oceanographic system. Evolution of this setting in the Gongola Sub-basin is indicative of a scenario of a broaden coastline in the coastal palaeogeography of the Yolde Formation typically suppressing due to frictional damping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Aeromagnetic Data to Assess the Structures and Solid Mineral Potentials in Part of North Central Nigeria

M. D. Tawey, D. U. Alhassan, A. A. Adetona, K. A. Salako, A. A. Rafiu, E. E. Udensi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 11-29
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530223

Assessment of the structures and solid minerals was carryout to investigate subsurface structural characteristics and mineralization potential zones within part of north-central Nigeria. The residual magnetic intensity data of the area was reduced to magnetic pole after which several source edge detection/interpretation with depth determination techniques including, analytic signal; tilt derivative; first and second vertical derivatives and Euler deconvolution were applied to the aeromagnetic data. From the analytic signal map, three magnetic zones were delineated. These are: low to relatively low magnetic zone (LM) with amplitude range from 0.003 to 0.009, moderate magnetic zone (MM) with amplitude 0.009 to 0.106 and those with amplitudes above 0.106 were products of later magmatic intrusions into host with fractures, faults and joints. Tilt derivative helped in delineating location and extent of edges of causative sources while Euler deconvolution helps in determination of boundary, depth and geometry of the structures. From first vertical derivative map, structures were found to have high lineament density around the central portion of the area and span toward the western end of the map were delineated. The lineaments mapped trending in the ENE-WSW followed by WNW-ESE with some NE-SW, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE trends. The second vertical derivative (SVD) map also helped in delineating structures and possible mineralization zones that are pronounced within the study area, around high analytic signal zones. Delineated possible and favorable mineralization zones from second vertical derivative map correlate with portion of the study area with rocks showing high analytic signal amplitude suggesting the rocks to be of later magmatic intrusions where mineralization fluids solidify within the host rocks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-temporal Analysis of Noise Levels across Hotspot Areas in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Bright Chika Ajoku, Odinaka Amadi- Wali

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530225

This study examined spatial and temporal variations of noise levels across hot spot areas in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State Nigeria. It employed a quasi-experimental design. The noise level was captured using Mobile Application known as decibel (dB) X in infinix note 3 android smart phone, which was calibrated with a digital noise meter SET 1350, with a measuring level range of 20–120 decibel while the sampling points were captured with the use of handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) Garmin 78sc which was calibrated to UTM zone 32N. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was the main tool in manipulating surface prediction modeling Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) in the morning and evening noise levels using Environmental Science Research Institute’s (ESRI) software ArcGIS 10.4 version. In the twelve areas investigated, two sample points were captured in each, making a total of twenty four points. Analyses  was done using ANOVA and t-test for the hypotheses and the finding of the results in mean noise levels in the morning and evening indicate that there were no statistical significant difference in the noise level as P =.89 and P =.124 respectively while the t-test indicates statistical significant difference in the majority of the hotspot areas. Therefore, hypotheses of significant mean noise levels were accepted. The finding of the IDW reveals that noise pollution occurs in the morning than in the evening periods in most areas, as they exceed the allowable noise limit of WHO standard is 85 dB (A). Based on the findings, the study recommended among others: that noise pollution planning controls should not be compromised but operates at higher dimension through planting of trees and monitoring in order to ensure strict compliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Climate Variability Trends in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Oladeinde Stephen Olufemi, Magaji I. Joshua, Ekpo Abraham Salamatu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530226

Changing global climate has emerged as one of the greatest environmental problems of mankind in the 21st century. However, there is still a dearth of information regarding the trends and patterns of climate variables at local and specific levels. It is against this background that this paper assessed climate variability trends in Nasarawa State, Nigeria over 21 years’ period (1997 – 2017). Daily data on climate variables for the State was obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency and analysed using the linear trend function in Microsoft Excel. Pattern and course of the variables’ trend were determined using the trend/slope line and the trend equation. Out of the six investigated climatic parameters; maximum temperature, minimum temperature, total annual rainfall and dew points experienced the greatest fluctuation in Nasarawa State during the 21 years’ period (1997 – 2017). Also, while maximum and minimum temperature generally assumed an increasing trend, annual total rainfall and dew points alongside relative humidity and wind speed were generally decreasing. Policymakers in the various earth’s supporting systems such as agriculture, land and water, should employ the key findings of this study for advising some suitable adaptation and mitigation policies to cope with climate variability and change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Barite Concretions in Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation, North Sudan

Abazar M. A. Daoud, Rashed M. A., Kadry N. Sediek, Elamein A. M., Elsharief A. M.

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 51-64
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530227

During our examination of the outcrops of the sedimentary formations in northern Sudan, we found discoidal-shape grains of the heavy mineral, barite in a sandstone of the Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation, which was recorded by all the earlier workers as a reworked sandstone. Petrography-wise, the framework of the sandstone consists of very angular to angular quartz grains, in which monocrystalline grains dominate over polycrystalline grains. Barite is the main cementing material of this sandstone, which occurs as concretions. Barite concretions indicate that more of the original porosity has been destroyed by cementation rather than by compaction processes with the inter-granular porosity being reduced mainly due to cementation. The origin of these concretions, as a cementing material in the sandstone, is ascribed to the reaction of Ba with some soluble sulfate to form the extremely insoluble heavy barite that appears as rounded concretions. The sulfur of the sulfate may be from the hydrothermal fluids related to submarine volcanism and/or biogeochemical processes. The deposition of these concretions might have taken place not long after the formation of the sandstone. The source of the barium, however, remains an unsolved problem. Further work is needed to interpret the origin and occurrence of these concretions along the region of Wadi Halfa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tidal Rhythmites Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-basin Northern Benue Trough N. E. Nigeria

B. Shettima, B. Shettima, M. Bukar, B. Shettima, H. I. Kamale, A. O. Umaru, I. A. Yerima

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 65-72
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530228

Facies evaluation carried out on the Yolde Formation at Gabukka locality in the Gongola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough was aimed at enacting its paleo-depositional environment. The formation at this locality revealed an intercalated succession of massive bedded sandstone facies (Sm), planar crossbedded sandstone facies (Sp), ripple laminated sandstone facies (Sr), parallel laminated sandstone facies (Sl) and mudstone facies (Fm). These successions developed a thinning and thickening stratigraphic profile depicting periodic rhythmic signatures indicating deposits of tidal rhythmites. Thickening rhythmic packages are reflective of a spring tide whereas thinning phases are indicative of neap tide. These depositional sequences are genetic to intense tides conditions, thus an indexing a tide dominated oceanographic within the course of development of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil in the Sahelian Region: Case Study in Nioro du Rip, Senegal

Landing Biaye, Fary Diome, Seybatou Diop, Modou Mbaye, Djibril Tine, Dome Tine, Ndeye Penda Dione Diene, Gayane Faye

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 73-82
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530229

The locality of Nioro du Rip is facing intense erosion, loss of agricultural land, soil pollution and soil degradation. Today, there is limited information about the soil physical and chemical properties in the locality. In this work, we describe the main essential factors or mechanism that control the evolution of the soil in the study area.

The physical and chemical properties of soils encountered along a NE-SW transect in are analyzed in this paper. The statistical analysis results revealed low structural stability of soils in general, due to their low organic matter content and exchangeable bases and their predominantly silty texture. A net trend towards acidification, which is more pronounced in the lower-bottom and terrace soils, provides information on the conditions that are increasingly unfavorable to agricultural development.

The multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) identified the preponderance of two factors among the four primarily involved in soil geochemical composition. These include a mineralization process (expressed through the first principal component (PC1), which causes soils to be rich in elements (Ca2+, K+,C, N, MO) controlling their structure and fertility level;  The PC2 axis expresses the spatial differentiation phenomenon of the soil granulometric composition: soils forming cluster poles according to their textural affinity in the projection of the plane formed by these two components , with on one side the sandy-dominated soils of the shallows and terraces and on the other the clay-dominated soils of the plateau and the slope. A clear reversal of textural polarity in the studied topo sequence that must be blamed on the strong water erosion in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urban Planning Challenges and Prospects in Nkambe Town, Northwest Region of Cameroon

Ngwani Awudu, Balgah Sounders Nguh, Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 83-95
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530230

For over three decades or so, urbanisation and urban development alongside urban planning have become a cardinal issue to urban dwellers, government institutions and professionals in the developed and developing countries. It is in this regard that this paper examines urban planning challenges and prospects in Nkambe town. The growing population of Nkambe like in other emerging Cameroonian towns suffers from the problem of socio-economic and environmental problems and need adequate urban spatial planning. Field surveys, observations, interview with the administration, questionnaire administration, interviews and on-the-spot appraisals constituted the main data sources. Three focus group discussions were carried out which was complemented by secondary sources. The results indicated that the driving forces of urban disorder were population increase manifested through inadequate enforcement of its plan, non-respect of building codes, poverty and limited houses with potable drinking water, business conflicts, inadequate health facilities, and increasing crime waves. The study recommended that there is a need for a change of mentality of the Nkambe man towards an awareness that the town has its carrying capacity and when overstretched could lead to devastating respond in an undesirable manner probably in future.