Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Land Use Changes on Agricultural Land Use: Evidence from Jalingo Region of Taraba State, Nigeria

Yusuf Mohammed Bakoji, Elijah Elizabeth, Umar Jauro Abba, Ayesukwe Rimamsikwe Ishaku, Yusuf Iraru

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630231

This study examined the integration of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (RS/GIS) for analyzing land use in Jalingo Region, Taraba State for the period 1996 to 2016; the image of 1996, 2006 and 2016 was used. The study employed a supervised digital image classification method using Arc GIS 10.3 software and classified the land use into residential, agricultural, commercial and transport. The images were made to pass through the processes of georeferencing, image enhancement, image resampling and classification and also descriptive statistics was adopted to analyze the findings on the effect of Urbanization on agricultural land use. Data for the study was the image of Jalingo Region of 1996, 2006 and 2016; also data was collected primarily by the administration of the questionnaire, and a total of 289 well-structured questionnaires were administered. Result show there was a significant loss of agricultural land from 180.46 km2 to 135.66 km2. It also revealed an increase of residential land use from 10.30% area coverage in 1996 to 28.07% in 2016, commercial land use increased from 0.20% area coverage in 1996 to 2.60% and transport increased from 0.39% to 2.84% in the same study period, with an annual rate of change of 7.82%, 35.81% and  46.95% respectively. This study shows that agricultural land use pattern has been greatly affected by transport, residential and commercial land uses. These results could help city planners and policymakers to attain and sustain future urban development. It is therefore recommended that government should encourage the people to expand and build towards the outskirts of cities, like Joroyinu, Lankaviri, etc through the provision of incentives and forces of attraction that is available at the city center in these areas to avoid the problem of overcrowdings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Resources Exploitation Practices and Challenges: The Case of River Meme, Cameroon

Amawa Sani Gur, Atiekum Zipporah Enjongaya, Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi, Tata Emmanuel Sunjo

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630232

The exploitation of water resources, an aged old practice, continue to attract significant research and policy attention. For the most part, this subject has eluded geographical literature in the context of the River Meme. We contribute to provide empirical evidence, by exploring water resource exploitation practices, challenges and implications, taking the case of four exploitation sites in Mbonge. The study employed a random sample of 270 respondents drawn from four study communities, complemented by interviews. The data were analysed descriptively and inferentially, using the ANOVA. The results reveal that three resources were identified as key to include sand, fish and domestic water. The study further revealed that the exploitation of the resources of River Meme is important for socio-economic development, the provision of sand to construct local and modern structures, the creation of employment, and the provision of household income. Key exploitation challenges include inadequate capital, poor management approaches, the use of rudimentary tools, and conflict among others. The study concludes that, as a result of the challenges faced in the exploitation of water resources, River Meme should be developed as a recreational site – this will serve as a source of income generation to the local population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tidal Flat Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-basin Northern Benue trough N. E. Nigeria: Implication for Macro-Tidal Coastline

B. Shettima, M. Bukar, A. Kuku, H. I. Kamale, B. Shettima

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630233

This research aims to evaluate the facies and facies association of the Yolde Formation at Kware stream in the Gongola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough with objective of characterizing its paleodepositional environment. Six lithofacies consisting of trough crossbedded sandstone facies (St), massive bedded sandstone facies (Sm), planar crossbedded sandstone facies (Sp), ripple laminated sandstone facies (Sr), parallel sandstone facies (Sl) and mudstone facies (Fm) defining its stratal packages were skewed into distinctive assemblages of flaser, wavy and lenticular bedding. This present a fining upward signature with facies association typical of tidal flat system. This is evident of a coastal progradation with sequences reflecting migration of a supra-tidal mudflat over intertidal mixed-flat zone which progressively superposed subtidal sandflats. This is indicative of a coastal shoreline with a relatively progradational phase within the net transgressive regional framework of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tidal Channel Depositional Complex of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-Basin, Northern Benue Trough N. E. Nigeria

B. Shettima, M. Bukar, A. Kuku, B. Shettima, B. Shettima, H. I. Kamale, A. O. Umaru

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630234

The facies analysis of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation at Gamajigo village in the Gongola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough indicated fining upward a sequence characterized by the assemblages of five lithofacies that comprises of trough crossbeds, planar crossbeds, massive beds, ripple laminations, and mudstone. This fining upward architecture is defined by trough crossbedded sandstone with erosional contact at base overlain by interbedded sandstone and mudstones often displaying bi-direction paleocurrent patterns and growing mudstones content upwards moving into dominantly mudstones unit. This concurrently demonstrates dissipating energy intensity upwards as such reflecting a tide dominated system clearly of tidal channel depositional complex that most commonly develop in estuaries and tide dominated delta. Though on the account of the presences of Skolithos ichnofacies, a stressed hydrodynamic regime and indicating extension of tidal channel into the open sea may be very likely. This is generally indicative of a tide dominated oceanographic system in the advancing and inundating Cenomanian transgressive sea that define the coastal realm of the Gongola Sub-basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Drought across Kaduna State, Nigeria Using MODIS Dataset

M. N. Pius, S. A. Yelwa, A. B. Sanda

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 45-61
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630235

Introduction: Kaduna state in Nigeria is located within the Guinea Savannah of the African Continent. The state is susceptible to desertification and the risks of drought.

Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study is to access magnitude and extent drought in Kaduna state Nigeria using MODIS dataset.

Study Design: The study examined people’s perception; precipitation data and satellite imageries for assessing and monitoring drought. Descriptive statistics were used to present the some of the data.

Methodology: The dataset were analysed using Idrisi remote sensing and Geographical Information (GIS) softwares to determine the aerial coverage of drought and its magnitude. Furthermore, run off were determined, VCI calculated, cross-tabulation were made from classified imageries and the views of respondents were also sought to complement the analysis.

Results: The study revealed that there have been several episodes of drought in Kaduna state within the period under review. Runoff decreased from 72.50mm in 2000 to just about 48.00mm in 2009. The study also revealed that there is a positive relationship (0.72) between rainfall and vegetation vigour/biomas in the state. Similarly, vegetation condition index (VCI) revealed a value 10.2% indicating a severe drought in the state based on Kogans drought classification.

Conclusion: The study concluded that both rainfall and vegetation/biomas vigour are generally decreasing suggesting a strong positive correlation value of 0.71. While a better high spatial resolution satellite dataset be utilised for further studies in this direction, the study also recommends that individuals and organisations be encouraged to engage in the habit of tree planting in order to curtail the decrease in vegetation biomass in the state.  In addition, research and extension services should be strongly promoted in order to develop particular breed of seeds that can survive the drought in this period of food insecurity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Temperature and Moisture Stress: Response of Some Selected Physico-chemical Properties of Soil Along with Practice of Plant and Microbes-derived Organic Fertilizers

Md. Shiful Islam, Md. Harunor Rashid Khan, Fariha Farzana

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 62-76
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630236

In favor of assessing the influences of soil temperature elevation and moisture stress on physico-chemical properties of soil including soil reaction (pH), organic carbon (OC) content, availability of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg), field experiments were carried out over two seasons incorporated with organic materials of tricho-compost (TC), rice straw compost (RSC) and mustard meal (MM). Temperature elevation of 3°C from daily field temperature (23-25°C), and two different moisture levels - moist (70% moisture) and saturated (>100% moisture) - were considered simultaneously along with the application of TC at the dosages of 0, 2.5, 5; RSC at 0, 4, 8 and MM at 0, 3, 6 t ha-1. Elevated temperature markedly augmented OC (0.41 to 0.98%), N (1.07 to 4.98 m mol kg-1), P (0.39 to 0.86 m mol kg-1), K (0.12 to 0.34 c mol kg-1), Ca (2.13 to 5.97 c mol kg-1) and Mg (1.09 to 2.93 c mol kg-1) contents in soil during first season with RSC followed by MM and TC. The moist condition of soil, accompanied by the selected amendments had almost collateral effects on the aforesaid analyzed properties of soil in contrast to saturated condition. The carry-over effects of these treatments were most striking on selected properties in subsequent soil with TC succeeded by MM and RSC. Among the used amendments, TC exerted the most striking effect on nutrient availability because of the abundance of Trichoderma spp. even under stress conditions. The elevated temperature significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced the C/N ratios during both seasons which accelerated the organic matter decomposition and markedly influenced availability of N (45.39%), P (49.23%) and K (21.83%) revealed from regression analysis, irrespective of seasons. Moreover, the practice of tricho-compost over its sustainability – under climatic stress conditions - can therefore be good determinative over recovery of soil health via ameliorating soil organic matter and nutrient status.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of the Flood-Prone Areas in Birnin Kebbi, Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Abdullahi Muktar, Sadiq A. Yelwa

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630237

Aim: To identify settlements that are vulnerable to flooding within River Rima floodplain in Birnin Kebbi Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A flood vulnerability test was conducted by observing the relationship between the locations of settlements on the floodplain and elevation data, considering previous flooding events.

Place and Duration of Study: The study covers Birnin Kebbi Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria.

Methodology: This study uses Digital Elevation Model DEM obtained by The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Geographical Information System (GIS) technique (Map Overlay) was used where DEM was overplayed by settlement location (point data). Similarly, 3D view was used to confirm the result.

Conclusion: The result shows that 12 settlements in Birnin Kebbi LGA were located at the lower altitude (<207m) with close proximity from the river channel. Therefore, the settlements and the surrounding farmlands become vulnerable to flooding.

Recommendations: It was recommended that the settlements should be relocated to higher ground for safety. Local farmers should use species of rice that can survive longer time when submerged by water. The Environmental Monitoring Agencies should include detailed images showing affected areas in their publications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Geospatial Maps Based on Spatial Availability of Soil Physicochemical Characteristics at a Cyclone-affected Area in Southwestern Bangladesh

Arafat Rahman, Fariha Farzana, M. S. Islam, Ishrat Jahanara, A. S. M. Mohiuddin, Mahmuda Akter, M. J. Uddin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 86-102
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i630238

On account of evaluating and mapping the spatial distribution of some selected physicochemical attributes of soil including the percentage of sand, silt and clay, textural class, soil reaction (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter contents over a period of last 20 years, an investigation was carried out at cyclone-afflicted Shyamnagar sub-district, Satkhira, Bangladesh. Particle size analysis was examined by following the hydrometer method, whereas pH and EC were determined instrumentally. The carbon content of the soils was examined volumetrically by the wet-oxidation method. The amount of sand was less than the silt and clay fractions in the studied sites. Silt contents were significantly increased for over 20 years. Consequently, siltation has been taken place for the last two decades. Soil salinity was associated with the development of silt texture, altered from clay loam texture. The field moisture contents were observed to be increased (52%) which attributed to the increase of clay content with depth. Investigation revealed a very slow to moderate soil permeability class. An incremental trend (4.55% to 27.27%) of pH and EC (12.25 to 46.40 mS/cm) was noticed in the present study in contrast to the study of 1996.  Alongside, corresponding spatial variability maps of the selected chemical soil properties were plotted by applying the Inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation method. Results demonstrated the southern, southeastern, and southwestern corners of the study area were experienced greater clay content, alkalinity, and significant depletion of organic matter. This situation might become worsened in near future. Moreover, the adoption of several effective countermeasures should be taken in this cyclone-affected soil to alleviate the soil salinity, improve soil health, and thereby deal with a more variable climate.