Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use Changes and Impacts on Livelihoods of the Communities Adjacent to Mt Elgon Forest Ecosystem

Nelly Masayi, Mugatsia Tsingalia, Paul Omondi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i730239

Forests play a critical role in providing essential goods and services to forest adjacent communities. There is, however, insufficient information on how land uses affect the availability and use of forest products and services by forest adjacent communities. This study analysed the impacts of land use changes on the livelihoods of Mt Elgon forests adjacent communities. Land use changes were assessed for the period 1977-2019 segmented into four time periods corresponding to remote sensing data obtained for the years 1977, 1986, 1999 and 2019. Household surveys were conducted using structured questionnaires administered to 387 respondents. The questionnaires assessed how changes in land uses has impacted livelihoods. Analysis of data revealed that between 1977 and 2019, the size of land under natural forest has declined by 18%, bamboo declined by 15% while grasslands declined by 13%. On the contrary, the size of land under mixed farming and fallow increased by 30% and 27% respectively. Majority of the households (91%) were affirmative that they obtained products from Mt Elgon forest pointing to the importance of the forest to the communities living adjacent to the forest. Households closer to the forest were more reliant on the forest than those that lived farther away. The use of forest resources has been declining from 1970s with herbal medicine, game meat and wild fruits experiencing the highest decline of 28%, 27% and 24% respectively. The high dependency of the forest-adjacent communities on the Mt. Elgon forests call for enhanced conservation of the forest ecosystem and sustainable utilization of forest resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Assessment of Urbanization Using GIS in Selected Neighbourhoods of Port Harcourt Metropolis

Asa Ekpo Bassey, Precious Nwobidi Ede, Ebiwari Wokekoro

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i730240

This study analyzed the spatial assessment of urbanization in Mgbougba, PH Township, Orazi Rumueme, and Eligbam Rumueme using GIS to determine the spatial and temporal changes. This study adopted data from a secondary source, which includes Landsat (7) TM Thematic Mapper of 1999, 2009 and 2019 of the study areas which were further analyzed to determine spatial and temporal changes that have occurred in the study areas. Findings from this study based on the classified Landsat imageries revealed that in Mgbougba, spatial changes were observed as a result of an increase in built area value of 591 in 1999 to 4066 in 2009 and to 6661 in 2019, hence, caused a reduction in vegetation cover with the value of 5038 in 1999 to 3733 in 2009 and to 1515 in 2019 and also a reduction of water body with a value of 363 in 1999 to 276 in 2009, with the absence of water body in 2019. Spatial changes also occurred in PH Township built-up areas indicating an increase in signature values from 3329 in 1999 to 4646 in 2009 and to 6276 in 2019. There was a decrease in vegetation cover of 2044 in 1999 to 1325 in 2009 and 1258 in 2019, bare land also showed a reduction in signature values of 1239 in 1999 to 1142 in 2009 and 791 in 2019 and finally a reduction of water body from 700 in 1999 to 658 in 2009 and 600 in 2019. In Orazi Rumueme, it revealed there was a significant expansion of built-up area value from 2514 in 1999 to 2978 in 2009 and 3936 in 2019. There was a decline in vegetation cover with a value of 678 in 1999 to 517 in 2009 and 426 in 2019.  Spatial changes in Eligbam Rumueme, showed that built-up area value increased from 780 in 1999 to 878 in 2009 and 1164 in 2019, thus, resulting to a reduction in the vegetation cover with a value from 625 in 1999 to 537 in 2009 and 251 in 2019 which indicated that urbanization led to significant spatial changes in built-up areas, vegetation cover, bare land and water body in the selected neighborhoods. However, the identified pattern of urbanization in the study areas showed that the selected neighborhoods possessed more built-up areas as of 2019 when compared to 1999 and 2009. The spatial analysis of urbanization using GIS aided in understanding the spatial changes that have occurred in the selected neighborhoods and provided plans for sustainable development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Analysis of the Mode of Management and Conflicts of Use of Water Resources in the Watershed of the Lobo River in Nibehibe (Central-Western Côte d'Ivoire)

Toure Fanraban Fabrice, Konan-Waidhet Arthur Brice, Diarra Ali, Yao Affoue Berthe, Koua Tano Jean Jacques, Koita Mahamadou

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 25-38
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i730241

Water is an indispensable resource for all activities developed by man. Water resources are indispensable for the survival of the populations of the Lobo watershed in Nibéhibé. They offer many multidimensional services. Around these important resources, social actors have different ways of perceiving them. This is why their management comes up against a difference in logic and action on the part of the different stakeholders. Thus, it must be noted that there is a crystallization of social relations between the different groups of actors involved and this is based on conflicts of use and the intensity of water scarcity. The objective of this study is to show the relationship between management mode and conflicts of use of water resources in the Lobo watershed in Nibéhibé. To achieve this objective, the methodology was based on the triptych documentary research, interview and questionnaire survey. The documentary research consisted in defining the contours of the subject in order to better understand it. Then, the interviews carried out with the actors of the water sector in the Lobo basin made it possible to collect information on the perception and the mode of management of the water resources in the basin. Finally, using the simple random selection method without discount and the use of a statistical equation, a sample of 384 households spread over the entire catchment area served as the basis for our surveys. Population surveys, combined with spatially referenced data under a GIS, have made it possible to map the spatial distribution of water supply sites on the one hand, and the spatial distribution of water-related conflict types on the other. The results show that the population has a wide variety of water supply sources. Moreover, the current management mode is either liberal (or private) or participatory (or community-based) depending on the type of water resource (surface or groundwater) and on the perception of the actors with regard to water.  Thus, the different uses generate conflicts that are perceived between cultural actors (indigenous) and economic actors such as SODECI (Water Distribution Company in Côte d'Ivoire) and fishermen (non-indigenous). There are also conflicts between women, which can be summarized as disputes over water points and distrust between different communities. An integrated management of water resources in this watershed would therefore be beneficial to all stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends Analysis of Stream Flow at Different Gauging Stations in Upper Jhelum River

Yogesh Pandey, A. K. Mishra, A. Sarangi, D. K. Singh, R. N. Sahoo, S. Sarkar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 39-55
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i730242

Analysis of stream flow trends plays a significant role in the flood forecasting and hydrologic drought assessment related investigations besides study of water resource management In this study, the long-term stream flow data recorded at different gauging stations in Upper Jhelum River (UJR) in Jammu and Kashmir (J &K) state basin were estimated using the Modified Mann-Kendall Test (MMKT)  and Sen’s Slope Estimator (SSE).Long term time series data of ten gauging stations used for trend analysis were annual maximum and monthly maximum stream flows for the years (1980-2016) for the months of occurrence of flood in UJRB. It was observed that six gauging stations out of the ten showed a significant decreasing trend in discharge and depth of flow in the UJRB at 0.05 probability level of significance. However the results of the monthly and seasonal maximum stream flow analysis showed that during spring season (March to May) about 90% of the gauging stations depicted downward trends in the summer season (Jun to Aug) all the gauging stations showed downward stream flow trends and approximately 60% of the gauging stations showed downward trends in the month of September (first month of autumn). This analysis resulted into quantification of flood magnitudes and its periodicity of occurrences to develop flood mitigation strategies. Nonetheless, such investigation of water flow in the river would also assist in regional hydrologic studies besides occurrence of flood and hydrologic droughts.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Geographical Analysis of Challakere Amrit Mahal Kaval Grasslands. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies

K. N. Ashwatha

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 56-71
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i730243

The Amrit Mahal Kaval grassland is a protected area dedicated to conservation of Amrit Mahal, an endangered breed of cattle that originated from the erstwhile state of Mysore in Karnataka. Nearly 14519 acres of grassland is reserved which is enriched with biodiversity and grassland ecosystem as well and with over 450 years of history. Thus, such kind of research on grasslands is important and also inevitable. Another important point to be noticed is that, this area was portrayed as barren land and in the year 2007, a report was prepared and submitted to the state government permitting Defense and other departments to use these 11400 acres of Amrit Mahal Kaval Grasslands which led to several impact on the biodiversity in this area. Remote sensing and GIS technologies were used to study the impact on grasslands in terms of Social, Cultural, Economic and Environmental changes between 2009 to 2019. By looking at the statistics of the Challakere Amrit Mahal Kaval grasslands it is evident that the developmental work carried out here has led to the loss of 4.59% of the vegetation area, 0.29% of the water sources and 24.6% of the pasture land. The Study focuses not only on the impact of biodiversity in that area but also on the social life of people. In today’s condition both development and ecological balance are important but at the same time it is really hazardous to suppress ecology in the name of development. Compromising ecology for development is proven inimical. It is the need of the hour to protect Amrit Mahal Kaval grasslands as it provides an important habitat for many endangered species like the Great Indian Bustard and Amrit Mahal cattle breed.