Open Access Original Research Article

Orientation and Frequency Analysis of Topographic Lineaments in the Miringa Volcanic Zone of the Biu Plateau Region, Borno State, Nigeria

Yakubu Mohammed, Ashe Kalli Gazali, John Onu Odihi, Mohammed Mala Daura

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i830244

The aim of present study is to spatially analyze the topographic lineaments of tectonic origin in the Miringa Volcanic Zone located in the northwestern part of the Biu Plateau. To achieve such aim, SRTM of spatial resolution 12.5 m was utilized. The lineaments were automatically extracted by using PCI GEOMARTICA software version 10. This was followed by field work for ground thruting and to establish field relationships. ArcGis 10.5 software version was used for spatial analysis of lineaments while Rockworks version 16 was used in creating the Rossace used in lineament trend analysis and other related statistical variables associated with the lineaments of the study area. 2036 linear structures were identified in the area with a total length of 30,193.85 m. The maximum length of lineament recorded in the study area is 150 m while the minimum is 3.68 m. Field work revealed that most of the lineaments in the area developed from the weathering of contacts between successive volcanic beds in areas overlaid by the highly dissected plateaus, escarpment slopes and denudation hills. Trend analysis of lineaments of the study area indicates that the direction of lineaments tend to lie in the North-east to southwest direction (Azimuth 45°-225°) which has same direction with major drainage system and most of the volcanoes of the area. This signifies the presence of a major fissure trending in the north-east to south-west direction as the primary tectonic structure of the area. Subsequent exogenic processes exploited this structure leading to the formation of other micro-lineaments that trend along the same direction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Sentinel Radar Images 1Ato the Extraction of Lineaments from the Lobo Watershed (Center-West of the Ivory Coast)

J. O. K. Kouadio, B. Dibi, M. J. Mangoua, A. B. Konan- Waidhet, B. Kamagaté

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 11-25
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i830245

The improvement of the conditions of access to drinking water for the populations of the Lobo watershed requires the exploitation of groundwater because of the surface water which remains exposed to climatic hazards and the impacts of anthropic activities. And yet, these underground waters finds himself bedrock aquifer which are complex aquifers. Thus, the objective of this study is to characterize those fissure aquifers that who govern underground run-off in the aquifer system of the Lobo catchment area. The methodology adopted consisted in using 1A sentinel radar images to map fractures and their spatial distribution. The validation of the lineaments first consisted in comparing and highlighting the lineaments from the radar images and the fractures revealed from photo-geological images. Next, we superimposed the map of lineaments on the map of boreholes with a flow rate greater than or equal to 5 m3/h, which were considered as productive boreholes. To determine the traffic corridors, this fracturing map was superimposed on the piezometric map. This work made it possible to extract 9,753 lineaments over a surface area of 7,000 km². The various validation techniques enabled us to confirm 121 major fractures with an average length of 9 km. In addition, the most productive boreholes are located on average less than 300 m from the fractures. The analysis of the distribution of the orientations of these fractures revealed a heterogeneity of direction and a predominance of the N-S; NW-SE and NE-SW families. The Fracturing density maps and density of the number of fracture crossing points highlight the spatial heterogeneity of the fracture network which is controlled by geomorphology, geological formations and lithological contacts. The river Lobo and its main tributary the Dé, flow preferentially in fractures. This river and its tributary drains the aquifer system. The results obtained from different thematic maps are useful for the realisation of future high-yield hydraulic wells (Q ≥ 5 m3/h).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Land Surface Temperature Variation in Anaiyur Catchment Using Remote Sensing Algorithm

K. Baladeepa, M. Balapreethi, M. Ashique, R. Akila, J. Ramachandran

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i830246

Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the important indicators to understand the spatial changes and surface processes on the earth surface that leads to actual assessment of environmental quality from local to global scales. In this paper, the thermal infrared bands of the Landsat 8 data were used to retrieve Land Surface Temperature for Anaiyur catchment located at Ramanathapuram district. Two images of April 05, 2017 and August 22, 2019 were used in this study to assess the land surface temperature. The results showed that LST from April, 2017 has higher temperature than August, 2019 because of the different season. The period of images taken were based on two different seasons. Overall, Remote sensing algorithms were effective for monitoring and analysing spatially and temporal variation of Land Surface Temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lithofacies and Environmental Analysis of Reservoir Sandstones in the “ABOM” Oilfield of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria

O. Omoboh Jonathan, Minapuye I. Odigi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i830247

Facies of part of the Coastal swamp depobelt was analyzed using well log. Electrofacies was defined based on well log signatures. The defined facies were inter-related to define a facies association. The facies association were related to deltaic depositional cycles. 10 of such facies association or deltaic cycles were seen in the interval studied. The facies association or deltaic cycles have a different composition of facies related to the level of preservation of the components of the association. The component of the facies association seen include marine clay facies, lower shoreface facies, upper shoreface facies, prograding mouth bar facies and fluvial facies. The marine clay facies underlie each facies association and the channel / prograding mouth bar cap the association where it is preserved. The lower shoreface facies, upper shorefacies, prograding mouth bar and fluvial facies form the Reservoir sandstones. The identified facies association was seen to be repeated in the interval studied though with different composition. This reflects different deltaic depositional cycles with different component of facies due to the prevailing depositional processes occurring at the period of deposition and those affecting the deposit of the cycles after deposition. The arrangements of the different components of the facies within the facies association will help in the prediction of reservoir sand bodies in any deltaic depositional cycle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydro-Geochemical Mechanisms of Brackish Shallow Groundwater Development- Coastal Greater Accra Region, Ghana

F. A. Mensah, S. K. Bartaya, B. Ofosu, T. A. Tagbor, S. K. Tiwari

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i830248

This study investigated the processes influencing the chemistry of surface and shallow groundwater in tropical coastal environments - south east of greater Accra region of Ghana using GIS models and combination of geological and hydro geochemical techniques for sustainable management of freshwater resources and abundantly available brackish water resources. A total of 37 shallow groundwater and 11 surface water samples were collected and analysed for their physico-chemical constituents.

The samples were adjusted to room temperature after which the hydrogen ion concentration (pH), Total Dissolve Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity were measured with a precision of 0.01 for both parameters using a La Motte, USA in unfiltered samples. The analysis of major and minor ions were performed using ion chromatography (DIONEX-ICS-1000 Series). The geographical locations of the samples were recorded with the aid of a handheld Global Position System (GPS).

The analysed shallow groundwater indicates minimum salinity values of 70.2 psu/ppm, maximum salinity of 4398.3 psu/ppm with an average of 1571.4 psu/ppm whilst surface water has minimum salinity of 33.8 psu/ppm, maximum of 43574 psu/ppm with an average of 4972.6 psu/ppm therefore highly saline. The total minimum dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations is 87.5 ppm, maximum of 5160 ppm with an average of 1911.96 ppm for shallow groundwater and for surface water minimum of 38.4 ppm, maximum of 27100 ppm and average 3938.12 ppm.