Open Access Case Study

Estimation of Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT 8 Satellite Data of Panchkula District, Haryana

Ravi Kumar, Anup Kumar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 47-66
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i1030263

Land surface temperature (LST) represents hotness of the surface of the Earth at a particular location. Land surface temperature is useful for meteorological, climatological changes, heat island, agriculture, hydrological processes at local, regional and global scale. Presently many satellite sensor data are available for calculation of land surface temperature like Landsat 8 and MODIS. In the present study land surface temperature in Panchkula district of Haryana have been calculated using Landsat 8 satellite data of 5th May 2019 and 28th October 2019. Already available equations were used for computation of LST in the study area. LST in the study area varies from 18°C to 56°C. High LST is observed in cultivation land, urban area while low LST is observed in hilly forest area in the study area. In the study validation of LST could not be done because of not available of temperature data of studied dates, however, the result gives idea of land surface temperature on a particular day and location.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Climate Variability on Crop Yield and its Implications for Smallholder Farmers and Precision Agriculture in Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

I. M. Sule, I. Ibrahim, J. Mayaki, S. Saidu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i1030257

This study aimed to examine the effects of climate variability on annual crop yield at smallholder farmers’ level in the Guinea Savanna Region of Nigeria, using Niger State as a case study.  Climate data (rainfall and maximum temperature) for a period of 38 years (1971-2008) was acquired from National Cereals Research Institute, Bida and Nigeria Meteorological Agency, while crop yield data was acquired from Niger State Agricultural Mechanization Development Authority (NAMDA). Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were undertaken in 18 communities in six local government areas in Niger State spread across the three agricultural zones in the State to validate the impact of climate change and variability. The climate data was analyzed with the aid of charts. Results showed a generally rising trend in both temperature and rainfall across the State. It shows that rainfall is not only more variable, but its onset and cessation patterns have shifted and its occurrence very inconsistent. Linear relationships between climatic variables and the major crops showed moderate to strong positive and negative relationships. However, when crop yields were regressed with the climate variables, only maize (.032), bambara groundnut (.029) and groundnut (.007) were very significant at .05 confidence level (95%). The policy implication of this finding is the need to provide the farmers with local climate information and the need for vigorous pursuance of the development of high yield crop varieties better suited to changing climate conditions in the Guinea Savanna ecological zone by research institutes and other relevant agencies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Surface Runoff using ArcSWAT for Rela Watershed, Rajasthan, India

K. Hema Narayana Reddy, Mahesh Kothari, K. S. Reddy, P. K. Singh, K. K. Yadav

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i1030260

The current study based on SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) Model which coordinates the GIS data with attribute database set to assess the runoff of Rela Watershed. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is based on distributed parameter model which has been created to forecast runoff, sediment, erosion and nutrient transport from agrarian watersheds under various management practices. The SWAT Model works related to Arc GIS. In the current study the catchment region has been delineated utilizing the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and afterward partitioned into 29 sub-watersheds or sub-basins. For planning of landuse map, the LANDSAT images are downloaded from earth explorer and the soil mapis obtained from NBSS (National Bureau of Soil Survey, Udaipur). The sub basins are partitioned into 29 HRUs which represents Hydrological Response Unit. At that point by utilizing 30 years of every day precipitation information and daily minimum and maximum temperature information SWAT simulation is accomplished for consistent schedule to estimate Runoff. The insights indicated diverse runoff framework esteem during the time 19.5 mm being the most minimal and 527.3 mm being the maximum runoff for Rela Watershed. The average annual runoff is 162.6 mm i.e. 28% of total rainfall in Rela Watershed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Change in Land Use Land Cover on Water Resources in Gundlakamma Sub Basin

N. Hari, A. Mani, H. V. Hema Kumar, V. Srinivasa Rao, L. Edukondalu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i1030262

The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of land use cover change on water resources availability in Gundlakamma Subbasin. The Gundlakamma subbasin is predominantly agricultural based and Gundlakamma is a seasonal river. Hence, a study has been conducted to simulate the availability of water resources in the subbasin using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The database was generated like DEM, soil map and land use/cover using the secondary data and field survey. The SWAT model was calibrated three years (2010-2012) and validated with four years (2013-2016) with the observed discharges from reservoir outflow. The values of NSE and R2 was found as 0.79 and 0.87 during calibration, 0.65 and 0.72, respectively during validation. The modelled values showed reasonably good agreement with the observed values of reservoir outflow, both during calibration and validation periods. The reservoir outflow in the subbasin was quantified under the change land use conditions.

Open Access Review Article

Managing Attitudinal Constraints towards the Environment: A Panacea for Effective Waste Management in Port Harcourt and Its Environs

G. O. Chukwu-Okeah, T. N. Deekor

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i1030258

The management of people’s attitude towards the environment in today’s world has become an issue of global concern as it has been identified as the only way out to achieving a clean, safe and healthy environment. This study examined the waste situation presently in Port Harcourt as well as the constraints to environmental management in Port Harcourt and it was reported that most people have adopted wrong attitudes that impacts on the environment knowingly or unknowingly and hence these overtime have become a way of life that have overtime crept into the society as a lifestyle not minding its attending consequences and as a result puts a limitation to managing environmental challenges. The study also examined environmental and health implications of poor attitudes to waste management and it was discovered that arising from poor attitudes to the environment, the quality of the environment has deteriorated and that this have helped in increasing the spread of communicable diseases among residents and also flooding and other environmental challenges. The study however stated that poor air quality affect human health through adverse health conditions which affects the gastrointestinal linings, respiratory tract diseases and other   ill health. Arising from the study enlightenment campaign for all at schools, churches,        communities and Local Government levels, adoption and integration of environmental education into the present day school curriculum at all levels and the enforcement of environmental laws  on indiscriminate waste disposal will serve as a panacea for effective waste management in   Port Harcourt.