Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Quarrying Activities on Human Health in Boki Area Cross River State Nigeria

N. Egesi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i130259

Field investigation, trace elements geochemistry, borehole and groundwater data were employed to determine the level of contamination or pollution of heavy and trace elements in abandoned quarrying, agricultural sites and its adjourning communities which are leads and other parts of Boki Local Government Area which have massive basement rocks as prospects for quarry establishment. This preliminary study on geosphere-biosphere becomes useful in medical geology as rock-soil-water-human interactions, and relationships are important and obvious. The mining pits depths range from 30.5 m to 50.0 m, while the boreholes depths is 41.0 m to 45.0 m and the thickness of regolith soil weathered Feralsols soil and less weathered Acrisols soil, varies from  22.0 m to 35.0 m in places. The Geochemical data obtained indicates Ba, Th, Ce, Zn, Zr are high in all rocks while Cr and Ni are generally low. In the water samples, some borehole values for the faecal pollution are high and indicates the water is contaminated, CaCO₃, Mg are high, while NO₂, F are low, when compared with established data from WHO standards, they indicates anomalies. The high Ba contents in a previous laboratory animals study shows it can cause nephropathy, but not carcinogenic or genotoxic. The identified boreholes water that are contaminated should be disinfected before use. For a sustainable quarry development in the area, there should be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) with a clear baseline data, reclamation, remedial and rehabilitation procedures before abandonment at the end of the life of the quarries.

Open Access Original Research Article

History in Store: A Study of a Prototype Archaeology Site at Gbaagbum Village in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

Kyegh, Aov Thaddeus

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 14-20
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i130261

Aim: To bring to light a prototype archaeology site at Gbaagbum village in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was gotten through primary and secondary sources. These includes oral interviews, observation and documentation from field work, and written / archival records respectively.

Study Design: The study items were from Gbaagbum village and the research evaluation of the items found at the site revealed that the site was home to unknown occupants before the present settlers.

Place and Duration of Study: Gbaagbum village in Gwer West Local Government Area (LGA) of Benue State, Nigeria.

Methodology: There was physical observation of the culture materials found at the site and through oral interview sessions conducted further revelations were made.

Results: Findings revealed that it was once an abandoned site for an unknown migrant community who occupied the area, but relocated before the present occupants. Furthermore, the study revealed a tunnel with complete and pieces of pots and a human jaw in the first chamber. There was a big open pot which serve as a lid to the second chamber. The paper suggests that a more comprehensive and professional archaeological / historical study be conducted at the site and within the Ityôshin area to unearth a history of the originators of the cultural materials that were accidentally discovered. The use of modern archaeological equipment, methods and principles can be greatly relied upon in this regard. To conclude a lot still needs to be done in archaeology especially in the remote areas like the Gbaagbum Village of Benue State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Potential Zones for Solid Waste Disposal in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

Kulokom Stephen, Balogun Bolarinwa Olutayo, Fagbeja Mofoluso

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 21-32
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i130264

Disposal is a critical phase in the management of municipal solid waste, due to unavailability of suitable facilities to treat and dispose of the large amount of municipal solid waste generated daily in metropolitan cities. Improper municipal solid waste disposal locally, cause environmental impacts such as contamination of soil, water pollution, and increase methane emissions. In this study, an attempt has been made to use GIS and remote sensing to identify high potential zones for solid waste disposal in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State between 2019 and 2020. Primary data and secondary data were used for this study. The position data of the existing dumpsites in the study area were acquired in-situ with a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The secondary data consists of NigeriaSAT-X, geological, administrative maps, Google map, hydro-geophysical data and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) images. Thematic layers considered in this study include drainage, road and land use/land cover, lithology and geology. The dumpsite point (X, Y) was imported as shapefile and superimposed on the study area boundary to show the existing location. Digital image segmentation of NigeriaSAT-X and geology dataset was carried out to derive the land use/ land cover and geology classifications of the study area. Lithological analysis was carried out using Kriging Method to interpolate the hydro-geophysical data. The slope, land/use, geology, drainage, road, waterbody, built-up and lithology were reclassified and overlaid using Weighted Sum Overlay Method a Spatial Analyst tool in ArcGIS 10.4 to generate the potential zones for solid waste disposal. The result shows the potential zones for solid waste disposal and characterized into unsuitable, less suitable, moderately suitable, suitable and highly suitable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Consumption and Production Technologies in the Context of the Landscape of the Hillside Surface in the Municipality of Mucambo-Ce

Bruna Lima Carvalho, José Falcão Sobrinho

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 33-45
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i130265

The present research aims to study social technology in Mucambo, Pedra de Fogo, and Pajeú, based on an approach to the elements that make up the Coreaú Watershed. The Brazilian Northeast has been a region punished by the lack of water due to irregular rainfall. Such a problem, which has been part of the reality in that region, is, among other factors, accompanied by a population that shows resistance to the difficulties related to water conditions. The manuscript discusses social technology in the Mucambo outback, which stores water during the rainy season to be used by humans and in agriculture in the drought period. This aspect is significant because of the water shortage in the dry season in the location. This way, social technology grant water assistance to the population, providing security for this resource. The results highlight the social technology benefits, being the most significant water source for families living in rural areas. Given the research results, the cisterns are relevant for consumption and production in rural areas since people reported that they store water in good quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Assessment of the Impacts of Sand Mining Activities in Benin City, Edo State Nigeria

Sunny Oluku, Monday Ohi Asikhia

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 46-57
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i130267

This study assessed the geospatial impacts of sand mining activities in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. There are thirty five (35) burrow pits in Benin and eleven (11) were used for the study. Similarly, three (3) distinct datasets and sources were used to determine the spatial extent of environmental degradation as a result of sand mining activities in Benin City. The first data set was the 19th January, 2019 satellite imagery of each of the mining sites. This high resolution remotely sensed data was used in the determination of areal extent of the sand mining sites. The second set of data was the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) 30meters resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The ASTER-DEM was used as an input dataset in the determination of the volume of sand that have been mined in each site and compilation of three – dimensional model (3D Model) of each the sand mining site. The third set of data was the geographic coordinates of the mining sites. They were sourced from field survey with the use of global positioning system (GPS).The study concluded that sand mining and development cannot be entirely separated but mining should be done in a sustainable manner with less of environmental degradation. It is recommended that miners should be regularly sensitized by the government on environmental degradation and about the fragile nature of the environment. The government regulatory body should ensure that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is carried before mining pits are approved for mining activities. Also illegal burrow pits should be short down to check environmental degradation.