Open Access Short Communication

Scientific Basis and Geophysical Consequences of Geomagnetic Reversals and Excursions: A Fundamental Statement

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 59-69
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i330277

Convection in Earth’s georeactor sub-shell is responsible for generating the geomagnetic field and for maintaining the critical balances necessary for stable sub-core nuclear fission. External factors capable of disrupting sub-shell convection are trauma at Earth’s surface, for example by meteorite impact, and electrical energy transfer via Faraday’s electromagnetic induction into the georeactor by changes in the solar wind or in the magnetospheric ring current. Reduced sub-shell convection not only leads to decreased geomagnetic field intensity, but to increased uranium settling out into the sub-core where it undergoes uncontrolled nuclear fission until sub-shell convection is reestablished. Periods of uncontrolled georeactor nuclear fission are responsible for causing geophysical phenomena at Earth’s surface that are associated with geomagnetic reversals and excursions. Anticipated consequences of sub-shell convection collapse include increases in volcanic activity, increases in the number and intensity of earthquakes, warming of the oceans, and diminishment of atmospheric convection resulting in global warming at the surface. The most worrisome potentiality is triggering the eruption of the Yellowstone super-volcano. Changes in solar wind flux, too small to cause geomagnetic field collapse, however, may cause increases in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The understanding described here potentially provides a basis for the development of earthquake and volcanic eruption prediction methodologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Petrographic Studies of Rocks around Arum and Its Environs, North Central Nigeria

M. M. Iliya, U. M. Ma’aji, Isah Umar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i330273

A detailed geological mapping of the area around Arum and environs part of Kurra sheet 189 SW was carried out on the scale of 1: 12, 500. Geologic field mapping and petrographic study (both megascopic and microscopic) were the methodology used. The geologic mapping of the area identified four rock units which are; granite, porphyritic granite, granitic gneiss and Porphyroblastic gneiss. These rock types were distributed such that the granite at the north-eastern part covered about 25%, the north –western portion was occupied by the porphyritic granite which occupied the largest portion of about 30% of the area. The third rock unit is the granitic gneiss which covered only about 20%. The fourth (last) and the oldest rock unit is the Porphyroblastic gneiss covering about 25% of the total area at the south-eastern corner. Megascopic and microscopic study revealed that the rocks in the area comprised of minerals such as; quartz, biotite, muscovite, microcline, feldspar, hornblende, garnet, etc. Structures that were clearly evident in the area included fault, foliation, joints, and veins. Structural analysis showed that their rose diagrams proved a NW-SE, NNE-SSW and NE-SW trends to be dominant.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Socio-economic and Environmental Implications of Supplying Charcoal in Yaounde City

L. Defo, M. Touakam, C. Tatuebu, Tagne, F. Nghobuoche

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 13-34
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i330274

This article aims to identify and assess the socio-economic and environmental implications of supplying charcoal in the city of Yaounde. To achieve the above-mentioned goal, investigations based on a standardized questionnaire (130 charcoal producers and sellers), formal interviews (7 resource persons), informal discussions, field observations and floristic survey were carried out in Bikok between the last quarter of 2016 and the second quarter of 2017. Bikok, a subdivision located in the neighbourhood of Yaounde is one of the most important supply sites of charcoal for the city. Investigations revealed that, accelerated demographic growth over the past fifty years, unemployment and poverty constitute the main factors for the increase in the production and consumption of charcoal in the city. Poverty, unemployment and the urge for the satisfaction of basic needs constituted the main reasons for involvement of 98.8% of charcoal producers in the activity. The increase in urban demand for charcoal is at the origin of several significant biophysical impacts, including the degradation of forests and soils as well as the decrease in the availability of some Non-Timber Forest Products and animal species. In the survey villages, a total area of 3.1 hectares of forest is cut each year and the average distances from inhabited areas to harvesting areas, increased from 0.8 to 5 km in 10 years. 76.6% of charcoal producers believe that some animal species are increasingly rare in the locality. On the socio-economic level, this activity creates jobs, generates income thereby increasing the living standards of producers and sellers. More than 300 people are involved in this activity who earns on average an income of 3000 to 6000 Central African Franc (XAF) per day. Decrease in the availability of certain NTFPs and damage to the health of producers constituted some of the negative socio-economic impacts of this activity. It is imperative to adopt measures to limit the negative impacts of this activity while ensuring a sustainable supply of charcoal in the city or the use of alternative sources of fuel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Calibration of 4D Seismic Vintages for Effective Postproduction Intervention

B. T. Ojo, M. T. Olowokere, M. I. Oladapo

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i330275

Poor or low data quality usually has an adverse effect on the quantitative usage of (4D) seismic data for accurate analysis. Repeatability of 4D Seismic or time-lapse survey is considered as a vital tool for effective, potent, and impressive monitoring of productivity of reservoirs. Inconsistencies and disagreement of ‘time-lapse’ data will greatly affect the accuracy and outcome of research when comparing two or more seismic surveys having low repeatability. Correlation is a statistic procedure that measures the linear relation between all points of two variables. Error due to acquisition and processing must be checked for before interpretation in order to minimize exploration failure and the number of dry holes drilled. The seismic data available for this study comprises of 779 crosslines and 494 inlines. The 4D seismic data consisting of the base Seismic shot in 1998 before production and the monitor Seismic shot in 2010 at different stages of hydrocarbon production were cross correlated to ascertain repeatability between the two vintages. A global average matching process was applied while phase and time shift were estimated using the Russell-Liang technique. Two pass full shaping filters were applied for the phase matching. Maximum and minimum ‘cross-correlation’ are 0.85 (85%) and 0.60 (60%) respectively. Statistics of the ‘cross-correlation’ shift show standard deviation  (0.3), variance (0.12), and root mean square (0.78). For high percentage repeatability and maximum correlations, the requested correlation threshold is 0.7 but 1 and 0.99 were obtained for the first and the second matching respectively.  Conclusively, the overall results show that there is high repeatability between the 4D seismic data used and the data can be employed conveniently for accurate ‘time-lapse’ (future) production monitoring and investigation on the field.

Open Access Review Article

A Critical and Extensive Review of the Historical Rise and the Contemporary Resurgence of Interest in Positivism in Geography

Ekuase Innocent Omobude

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i330276

The positivist methods of explaining geographical phenomena enjoyed prominence and revolutionized the methods of geographical research up to the 1950s where the criticisms were largely that the methods cannot account for any role in human geography and the subsequent rise of humanism as an alternative mode of explanation. These critiques and the introduction of many concepts in humanism inadvertently slowed down the progress in seeking for acceptable scientific methods to explain human experiences in geographical research. These criticisms in the 1980s and 90s reduced the popularity and application of the quantitative methodologies which were powerful research techniques in human geography. Geography by its nature is a dual discipline with one half on physical and the other on human geography. Human geographers have used quantitative methodologies to study a multitude of topics including demographics, migration, housing and settlement patterns and ethnic segregation. Human activities like migration, journey to work, retail capital patronage, have adopted some element of scientific laws and models have been focused on transportation, migration, settlement development, innovation diffusion, population growth and distribution, urban land use etc. The shortcomings of the philosophy of humanism have not provided a good alternative in explaining geographical phenomenon and has over time become the gains of the positivist school of thought. The resurgence in the interest in positivism as a tool for explanation of geographical phenomena bores down from the fact that the humanistic methods is laced with subjectivity, the language of discourse is abstract and difficult to comprehend while the logical sequence of the positivist methods make the approach real and achievable.