Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring the Land Cover Change and Its Impact on the Land Surface Temperature of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques

Md. Marufuzzaman, Mst. Mahbuba Khanam, Md. Kamrul Hasan

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i430278

Urban growth possesses significant impact on land cover by replacing natural landscape into impervious surface. Substantial alteration of the green space into built-up areas have influential impact on the land surface temperature of a city. The aim of this study is to identify the land cover change on Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC) area for the last twenty years (1998-2018) and to assess the impact of land cover change on land surface temperature. During the last two decades, constant expansion of built-up area within Rajshahi city encroach the substantial amount of vegetation, open space, and waterbody areas, which results in large area of impervious surface. Therefore, two spatial analysis software namely Arc GIS and Erdas Imagine have been used to identify the amount of land cover change and variation in land surface temperature through supervised image classification and spectral radiance calculation methods on Landsat satellite images (1998. 2008 and 2018). The result shows that, the built-up area have been doubled during the last two decades by covering 10.98 and 22.82 square kilometers areas in 1998 and 2018 respectively. With a strong positive correlation between the land surface temperature and the land cover area, the maximum temperature rises from 23.25 to 27.08 degrees Celsius. This trend of Land Surface Temperature indicates, Urban Heat Island is building up within Rajshahi city.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Land Cover Change and Its Implication on the Environment around the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Southeastern Cameroon

Njini Loveline Munjeb, Yerima Bernard Palmer Kfuban, Marie-Louise Tientcheu Avana, Julius Tata Nfor, Roger Kogge Enang

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i430280

Land cover change is a growing concern around the world. This is especially true for protected areas which are rapidly degrading owing to pressure from anthropogenic activities. The aim of this study was to analyze land cover change for the periods 1980, 2008 and 2020 and its implication on the environment in and around the Dja Biosphere Reserve in south eastern Cameroon. This was done using remote sensing and geographical information systems techniques to quantify and measure the extent of land cover change in the study area for forty years. Household surveys were equally undertaken through the administration of questionnaires to farmers in villages located within the Dja Biosphere Reserve. Collected data was analyzed through the use of GIS software as well as Microsoft Excel. From the land cover maps, four classes were found: dense forest, cultivated areas, water surface, and buildings and bare soils. The transition matrix between 1980 and 2008 showed that 6477.81 ha of dense forest was lost to cultivated areas and between 2008 and 2020, 722.84 ha of dense forest was lost. Between 1980 and 2008 cultivated areas lost 0.07% and gain 0.72% between 2008 and 2020. Building and bare soils increase by 0.28% between 1980 and 2020. The Kappa index of agreement was 0.91 % between 1980 and 2008 and 0.88% between 2008 and 2020. Slash and burn agriculture (43.3%), hunting (36.3%) and harvesting of tree-based products (20.3%) were identified by farmers as the human activities with the most negative impact on the reserve. Results revealed that, there are still opportunities to safe this vulnerable reserve from the negative effects of land cover change through the practice of agroforestry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of the Physical-natural Units of the Hinterland Surface of the Pacoti Drainage Basin, Ceará, Brazil

Álvaro Andrade Dourado, José Falcão Sobrinho, Francisca Edineide Lima Barbosa, Francisca Edineide Lima Barbosa

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i430281

Because of the importance of preserving natural resources, especially drainage basins, it is essential to identify and manage the different types of natural landscapes found in these units, allowing the ecological balance of these regions. The application of geoprocessing techniques helps environmental agencies to make decisions, map and monitor the local conditions. The research proposes an examination of the Pacoti Drainage Basin, especially on its hinterland surface. The following cartographic databases were raised: Multimodal map of the state of Ceará scale 1:900,000, 2013, DENIT; Map of Geoenvironmental Subdivision Macroregion of Planning, scale 1:6,000,000, [5]; Simplified Geological Map of Ceará, scale 1:600,000 2015; Map of Phytoecological Units of Ceará, scale 1:600,000, FUNCEME, 2007; Weather Map of Ceará, scale 1:600,000. The mapped physiographic characteristics are the climate, geology, geomorphology, soil, vegetation, land use and occupation, and conservation units. Therefore, geo-technology has become a decisive factor in the identification and analysis of the local physiographic characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall Anomalies Pattern in Northwestern Nigeria (NWN)

Gbenga Emmanuel Olalere, Lawan Bulama, Ahmad Abubakar Umar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 43-52
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i430282

Constant investigation into rainfall anomaly pattern is very crucial as it enables the detection of any departure from normal rainfall condition. When such departure is persistent and statistically significant, it could indicate climate change. This study seeks to investigate anomaly pattern of rainfall in north western Nigeria with the view to determine any extreme departure from established normal rainfall behavior (mean). The study used thirty years (30) rainfall data from 1987 to 2016. The data was obtained from the archives of Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for six selected synoptic stations from the region. Purposive sampling technique was adopted in selecting the six synoptic stations given consideration to stations with longer consistent rainfall records. The data was subjected to Standardized Anomalies also known as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to obtain anomaly values. The values were used to plot time series for each station. They were also used to determine the dry or years with drought i.e. negative values and wet or moisture years i.e. positive values. The findings showed that throughout the thirty years period, normal conditions dominated the study area with few pockets of dry conditions. The study concludes that rainfall anomalies pattern in north western Nigeria over the thirty years period under investigation was not too far from normal rainfall conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Cartography to the Optimization of the Evaluation of Wind Energy Potential in the Republic of Cameroon: Case of Bitchoua Highlands

VadelTsopgni Eneckdem, Rodrigue Aimé Feumba, Odovie Tsomo, Jean Roger Bogning

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 53-66
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i430284

This study deals with a model combining cartography with mathematical simulation for the optimal evaluation of wind potential in the context of the absence of networks of in-situ observation stations. It is based on both geographic Information Systems (GIS), climate data from NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) from 1985 to 2018, and field survey data from 2018.The NASA-SSE data, made it possible to obtain information on the direction of the winds, to determine parameters of distribution of wind speed frequencies (by the Weibull method).Then, we proceeded to the processing and numerical simulation of the data to provide predictions of the electrical energy that could be generated. By mobilizing GIS, the study proposes a decisional mapping allowing the planning and realization of wind energy projects in the studied area. It appears from the work carried out in the field that with an average wind speed of 2.56m / s (at 50 m from the ground) the winds of Bitchoua have an average power density estimated at 1612.64 W. Under current operating conditions defined by the Betz limit, it would be possible to recover from the local wind, thanks to a 50 m diameter wind turbine, an electrical power of approximately 956.87 W / s, for a maximum average of 974.17 W / s. The spatial representation of this potential presents the Center and North-East of Bitchoua as the most suitable sectors for the installation of wind turbines in the locality. Indeed, with an average wind speed of 2.8m / s, the area has an average wind power density evaluated at 13.45 W, for an available power of 4221.53 W. Under current conditions of exploitability, the recoverable potential in this part would be about 1251.79 W / s, for 1275.07W / s on average maximum (well above the local average).