Open Access Original Research Article

Access to Pipe-Born Water Evaluation in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

B. T. Chunwate, Ruth Benbella Madaki, Mohammed D. Kabiru

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830299

Water is an essential element of the natural resource of the earth that sustains all living creatures on the planet, it`s fundamental importance can never be overemphasized. This study evaluates access to pipe-born water in Akwanga Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. The study identifies the sources of household water supply and identifies the presence of pipelines facilities in each household, to determine if the quantity of pipe water supply meets demands, also assesses the effects of the quantity of water supply on the socioeconomic activity of householders. This study adopted a survey research design. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered to households. A purposive sampling technique was employed to select the respondents. Five wards were selected within the study area, while 60 copies of questionnaires were distributed in each of the selected wards. Data were analyzed and presented using a descriptive form of statistics. The study revealed that most of the pipelines meant for the supply of water were old and inefficient. Therefore, no significant coverage (60%) of pipeline facilities in the study area. Pipe-borne water supply in the study area is not sufficient to meet the demands of the residents due to irregularity in the flow of water; 4.2% of these taps run every day, 8.8% of these taps run once a week, 11.7% of these taps run once in 3 days, 18.4% of these taps run once a year, 22.2% of these run once a month, while 37.7% water used for cooking, washing, drinking and sanitary purposes were mostly sourced from alternative sources that are energy and time consuming and costly to obtain. The average water consumed per person per day in the study area was 37.76 litres which are below the minimum absolute daily water needed 50 litres per person per day as stated by UNDP. Consequently, pipe-borne water supply in the study area does not have any significant impact on the socio-economic activities of residents as people still spent the better part of their time sourcing for water. This study, therefore, recommends that there should be constant monitoring of population growth rate and repairs of damaged pipes and taps in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Total Dispersion and Distribution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Aya Stream, Located in Niger Delta: Implications on the Quality and Health of Aya Water Stream

Lynda-Uta E. Okon, Philomena E. Asuquo, Honor T. Ifon, Peter U. Ekpang, Etim E. U. Ntekim

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830300

Globally, oil spills are known catastrophic events with harmful consequences that tend to endanger plant, animal and human life. The dispersion and distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons levels were investigated to evaluate its effect on the quality and health of Aya stream, located in the Niger Delta sub region, south east Nigeria. Water samples were collected from the stream, which is the most available source of water in Ikot Ada Udo local community, five years after an extensive oil spillage between the months of June and November 2012. These samples were analyzed to assess the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and physicochemical enrichment using Spectrophotometric with 1g of Bonny Light and Bonny Medium Crude Oils dissolved in 1000 ml of tetrachloromethane were used as standards as well as insitu measurements of water temperature and dissolved oxygen. TPH concentrations ranged from 0.21mg/l in dry season (September, October, November) to a maximum level of 0.33 mg/l in wet season (June, July, August) during the study. The mean concentrations found for physicochemical parameters during wet and dry seasons respectively were: temperature (27.67±0.29 & 27.83±0.290C), DO (3.47±0.65 & 3.44±0.67 mg/l), Cd (0.03±0.003 & 0.03±0.01mg/l), Pb (0.17±0.06 & 0.18±0.04 mg/l), Ni (0.08±0.01 & 0.08±0.005 mg/l), V (0.02±0.01 & 0.02±0.01 mg/l).The distribution pattern of trace heavy metals in the stream water followed the sequence: Pb>Ni> Cd>V. In all cases, Pb was the most abundant and V the least abundant metal. Elevated levels of some physicochemical parameters shown to correlate significantly (p=0.05) and associate with the oil spill infer that Aya stream has been severely polluted. Statistical analysis (t-test) of seasonal levels of TPH in water samples showed positive relationship (t=0.55, p=0.05). The implication of these results is that the concentrations of the studied parameters did not depend on seasonal influence but were connected with the incessant exposure of the site to oil seeps from the well-head. The high levels of lead above permissible limits in the studied samples poses a health threat, hence, the removal of the well-head and future situation of such structures away from the source of communal water source should be implemented to preserve the quality and health of the water source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Erosion-Prone Areas in Lamurde River Basin, Nigeria Using Morphometric Prioritization Method

E. D. Oruonye, Y. M. Ahmed

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 17-31
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830301

Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been increasingly used in characterization of drainage basin and prioritization of erosion prone watershed. This study uses remote sensing and GIS to characterise drainage basin morphometry and prioritize soil erosion prone sub watershed in the Lamurde watershed in Taraba state Nigeria. The study adopted standard formulae and methods to compute the morphometric parameters. The Lamurde watershed was delineated to fifteen sub-watersheds with each coded as WS1 to WS15. The result of the findings reveals that Lamurde watershed has a dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern with the smaller streams intersecting the main trunk at acute angles. The findings reveal that Lamurde is a ninth order stream with total area of 1,458.66 km2 and a perimeter of 395.93 km. The basin also has 258,493 total number of streams. The main soil types in the Lamurde basin are fluvisol, lithosol, ferric luvisols and humic nitosols. The surface soil texture of the area is mainly loamy type and particle size classes are fine loamy type. Depth of soil varies from shallow to very deep and having parent material derived from sandstones, mudstones and shales. The findings of the study reveals that watershed: WS7, WS8, WS5, WS11, WS15, WS14, WS2 and WS6 in ascending order are very highly vulnerable to soil erosion. Despite inherent limitation in the use of morphometric parameters to prioritize erosion prone sub watersheds, it is most suitable in the present circumstances because of inadequate information and lack of functional measurement station in the basin, since they have more stable and accessible data on which prioritization of the watersheds can be based on. This study contributes to the problem of dearth of information regarding the susceptibility to erosion in the Lamurde River Basin in Taraba State Nigeria. Based on this findings, these sub watersheds should be given higher priority on any soil conservation intervention measures in the study area. This will go a long way to help address the problem of soil erosion in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use/Land Cover Changes of Ado-Ekiti LGA, Ekiti State, Nigeria Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Ajagbe, Abeeb Babajide, Oguntade, Sodiq Solagbade, Abiade, Idunnu Temitope

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830302

Land use assessment and land cover transition need remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS). Land use/land cover changes of Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were examined in this research. Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI were acquired for 1985, 2000, and 2015 respectively. Image scene with path 190 and row 055 was used for the three Landsat Images. A supervised digital image classification approach was used in the study, which was carried out using the ArcMap 10.4 Software. Five land use/land cover categories were recognised and recorded as polygons, including Built-up Areas, Bare surface, water body, Dense Vegetation and Sparse Vegetation. The variations in the area covered by the various polygons were measured in hectares. This study revealed that between 1985 and 2015, there was a significant change in Built-up areas from 1694 hectares to 5656 hectares. However, there was a reduction in water body from 25 hectares in 1985 to 19 hectares in 2015; there was a severe reduction in the bare surface from 4641 hectares in 1985 to 2237 hectares in 2015. Generally, the findings show that the number of people building houses in the study area has grown over time, as many people reside in the outskirts of the Local Government Area, resulting in a decrease in the vegetation and bare surfaces. The maps created in this research will be useful to the Ekiti State Ministry of Land, Housing, Physical Planning, and Urban Development to develop strategies and government policies to benefit people living in the Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of the State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Challenges of Tree Nursery, Reforestation and its Impacts in the Limbe Municipality, South West Region, Cameroon

Emmanuel Nong Buh, Melle Ekane Maurice, Ukah Bonaventure Ngong, Okon Emmanuel Morio, Valentine Ngwoh Kum

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 43-53
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830303

With the increasing rate of global warming and climate change in the world and Limbe municipality in particular, tree nursery in the Limbe Botanic Garden and reforestation is of great importance to combat the negative environmental impacts. There are frequent landslides, flooding, rapid deforestation, and destruction of animal habitats leading to climate change and global warming in the town of Limbe. This study is focus on exploiting the challenges of tree nursery, reforestation and its impacts in order to reduce the increasing rate of carbon dioxide and other environmental disasters brought about by rapid deforestation. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to August 2021 using quantitative and qualitative approaches. With the use of a simple random sampling method, 400 questionnaires were administered. Focus group discussion (FGD) was held with tree growers, the chief of forest conservator in the Limbe Botanic Garden and also with the local population in charge of forest exploitation. The results obtained from the questionnaires indicated that 57% of the challenges of tree nursery and reforestation were as a result of limited species of trees being nursed and transplanted. In contrast, 24% and 19% of the respondents also indicated that the difficulty faced in the maintenance of Limbe Botanic Garden (LBG) is the fact that there is limited renovation strategies employed. And that the causes of deforestation in Limbe, is brought about by rapid exploitation of the forest for timber purposes. To overcome these challenges, a joint effort of government and stakeholder’s participation, together with the local population is urgently needed in order to achieve sustainable tree nursery and reforestation in the municipality.