Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Contamination Status of Soil around Abandoned and Active Nigerian Dumpsites

O. O. Afolabi, O. S. Eludoyin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i1030310

Aim: The study evaluated the heavy metals and contamination status of soil around active and abandoned waste dumpsites in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria.

Methodology: Five soil samples were collected at the topsoil (0-15cm depth) in a regular distance of 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m and 100m from the center of the dumpsites and control plot. The soil samples were analysed for heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn), pH and total Organic C (TOC) using standard laboratory analyses and contamination indices to determine the soil contamination status. Descriptive statistics involving mean and standard deviation were used for the data analysis.

Results: The mean concentrations of Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn in active dumpsite was 3.2616mg/kg, 0.3983 mg/kg, 0.2027 mg/kg, 6.5785 mg/kg, 2.6991mg/kg and 12.4111mg/kg respectively while that of the abandoned dumpsite are 1.3913mg/kg, 0.3693mg/kg, 0.0882mg/kg, 3.6235mg/kg, 0.4158mg/kg and 4.0140mg/kg respectively. Hence, the soil samples in both dumpsites exceeded the allowable limit of World Health Organisation (WHO). The order of heavy metal concentrations in the dumpsites was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd. The contamination factor of the heavy metals follows order: Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn > Fe for both dumpsites. The degree of contamination ranged from (1612.51 to 2286.83 for active dumpsite and 26.14 to 641.46 for abandoned dumpsite) indicating very high degree of contamination. Modified degree of contamination ranged from 46.09 to 381.14 for active dumpsite indicating “ultra-high degree of contamination” and 4.36 to 106.91 for abandoned dumpsite indicating high degree of contamination to ultra-high degree of contamination. Pollution Load Index ranged from (5.08 to 8.12 for active and 1.63 to 4.16 for abandoned dumpsite) indicating polluted soil with various heavy metals.  

Conclusion: the concentration of heavy metals combined with the contamination indices revealed that the soils around the dumpsites are contaminated/polluted; hence, pose ecological and health-related risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Perceptions and Practices of Environmental Problems: Bahir Dar City, in Ethiopia, in Focus

Birhanu Simegn Chanie

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i1030312

The main purpose of this study was to see the level of environmental perception and perceived environmental practices. It also addressed the correlations among demographic factors, awareness and perceived behaviors. Besides, how gender difference, if any, revealed on people’s perception and practice was checked. Fifty participants selected randomly from different working sites (such as football field, shopping centers, and public library) were administered a likert scale questionnaire on perceptions and practices of environmental issues. The descriptive statistics revealed fairly higher level of environmental perception and practices. Correlation coefficients revealed little sign of connection between what the participants perceived about environmental problems and what environmental activities they reported. Besides, insignificant differences between men and women were observed on both their perceptions and pro-environmental behaviors. Therefore, the role background and gender related variables play for pro-environmental issues seemed to be re-examined for a more elaborated explanation on environmental perception and behaviors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different WQI Methods for Drinking Water Assessment with a Case Study of Groundwater from Vizianagaram District, AP, India

A. G. S. Reddy, K. S. Sastry, Guru Raghavendra

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 28-46
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i1030313

Application of Water Quality Index (WQI) to assess the water quality for drinking water suitability and intensity of contamination is in practice worldwide. Many WQI methods have been in use since their conceptualization, and some are country-specific or use-specific. A generalized and widely acceptable method that can project ground truths in non-dimensional numerical form to evaluate the water quality, especially for drinking uses, is lacking. Complexity and disagreement among different methods are adding to incongruence among the scientists. The concept and a simple calculation method of WQI are deliberated. Five different WQI methods using water chemistry results of Vizianagarm District are discussed. The WQI output obtained from these methods displays discrepancies in the proper projection of water quality. Some samples show similarities in WQI values obtained from two to four methods. However, the suitability status of water for drinking purposes could not be precisely ascertained from these indices. Since the water chemistry results and WQI values are incompatible, the output from these methods could be red herring. Few issues are identified among the studied methods which need improvisation. The use of ideal value in the weighted arithmetic index method and arbitration in assigning Weight for each parameter gives scope for speculation. Non-uniformity in the categorization of water and the suitability statuses of drinking water are discouraging factors. The WQI is an effective tool in screening the vast database for identifying and addressing the issues in water quality. Since drinking water standards and water supply are government-sponsored, an institutional intervention is required to standardize the WQI computation procedure. Such an initiative is necessary for the practical application of water quality data to contain water-borne diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization of ‘Khume’ Field, Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria

K. A. Obakhume, O. M. Ekeng, C. Atuanya

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 47-60
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i1030314

The integrative approach of well log correlation and seismic interpretation was adopted in this study to adequately characterize and evaluate the hydrocarbon potentials of Khume field, offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria. 3-D seismic data and well logs data from ten (10) wells were utilized to delineate the geometry of the reservoirs in Khume field, and as well as to estimate the hydrocarbon reserves. Three hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs of interest (D-04, D-06, and E-09A) were delineated using an array of gamma-ray logs, resistivity log, and neutron/density log suites. Stratigraphic interpretation of the lithologies in Khume field showed considerable uniform gross thickness across all three sand bodies. Results of petrophysical evaluations conducted on the three reservoirs correlated across the field showed that; shale volume ranged from 7-14%, total and effective porosity ranged from 19-26% and 17-23% respectively, NTG from 42 to 100%, water saturation from 40%-100% and permeability from 1265-2102 mD. Seismic interpretation established the presence of both synthetic and antithetic faults. A total of six synthetic and four antithetic faults were interpreted from the study area. Horizons interpretation was done both in the strike and dip directions. Time and depth structure maps revealed reservoir closures to be anticlinal and fault supported in the field. Hydrocarbon volumes were calculated using the deterministic (map-based) approach. Stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) for the proven oil column estimated for the D-04 reservoir was 11.13 MMSTB, 0.54 MMSTB for D-06, and 2.16 MMSTB for E-09A reservoir. For the possible oil reserves, a STOIIP value of 7.28 MMSTB was estimated for D-06 and 6.30 MMSTB for E-09A reservoir, while a hydrocarbon initially in place (HIIP) of 4.13 MMSTB of oil equivalents was derived for the undefined fluid (oil/gas) in D-06 reservoir. A proven gas reserve of 1.07 MMSCF was derived for the D-06 reservoir. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of 3-D seismic and well logs data in delineating reservoir structural architecture and in estimating hydrocarbon volumes

Open Access Review Article

A Review of the Status of Rothschild’s Giraffe Sub-Species Population in Africa

George Njagi Gathuku, Cecilia Gichuki, Innocent Ngare

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i1030311

Africa is the cradle of the world’s giraffe species and the sub-species that keep evolving with more conservation approaches. However, the population of Rothschild’s Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) has been impacted at different sects in the wild. The aim of this paper was to review the status of Rothschild’s giraffe in Africa. A desktop descriptive review approach was used through perusal of different scholarly articles on giraffes.  From the existing literature, this review exposes the effect of human effects on giraffes, climate change extremes on wildlife, ecological and significance of wildlife, and socio-economic impacts of communities on giraffes. The existing literature shows the impact of climate change extremes on giraffe habitats, with notable droughts, triggers of diseases, and unfit habitat migrations. Conservation of wildlife has to deal with socio-economic and ecological issues that are complex and, most of the time, overwhelming. We recommend the need for community engagement in conservation of wildlife resources and the development of climate prediction models to better understand climate extremes that happen and affect giraffe habits and population.