Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Toxic Metals in Biota, Sediments and Water from a Polluted Mangrove Swamp in Rivers State

I. C. Davies, U. M. Odekina, S. Akoko

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i430343

Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were investigated in the tissues of mudskippers (Periophthalmus papilio), water, and sediments from Isaka-Bundu mangrove swamp in the Upper reach of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The samples were collected from three stations every week for three months. The trace metals and physicochemical parameters were determined according to APHA 2000 methods. The concentration of trace metals by stations followed the order: station III (Dockyard) > station II (Bundu-Ama) > station I (Isaka). The trace metal distribution sequence in the fish, water and sediment according to their stations followed this sequence: Dockyard (Sediment = Pb > Cd > As; Water = Pb > Cd > As; Fish = Pb > As > Cd); Isaka (Sediment = Pb > Cd > As; Water = Pb > Cd > As; Fish = Pb > As > Cd); Bundu Ama (Sediment = Pb > Cd > As; Water = Pb > Cd > As; Fish = Pb = As > Cd). The overall, trace metal concentrations by samples followed this sequence; (Sediment = Pb > Cd > As; Water = Pb > Cd >As; and the mudskippers (P. papilio) = Pb > As > Cd) across the stations. The study revealed that all sampled sites in the Isaka-Bundu mangrove swamp had heavy metal values within Joint FEPA/WHO recommended biota load limits. High significant values of Pb and Cd were observed in sediment and water across the three stations, while tissue concentration of all three metals was relatively low and uniform. If proper measures are not taken to curb the excess discharges into the river given the activities in the catchment, the condition of the river will deteriorate badly and become a menace to its inhabitants and the host community which depends on it directly or indirectly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Assessment of Land Cover Dynamics in the Guinea Savannah Ecological Zone

O. Ideki, T. P. Abali

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i430344

An attempt is made in this study to examine the geospatial analysis of land cover/ land use changes between 2000- 2016 in the North Central region including the Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Multispectral satellite images of Landsat 7 ETM and 8 OLI/TIRS of 2000, 2008 and 2016 with three land-use types were identified and analysed using Geographic Information System  ArcGIS 10.5 software. The land-use types are Urban representing the built-up area, Vegetation and water bodies. The area of each land use type per year was calculated and the result was used to compute land-use change and percentage change in square kilometres. The outcome of the analysis reveals that built-up area (Urban) land use increase from 10.64% in 2000 to 22.44% in 2008 and later 29.01% in 2016 while Vegetation reduced from 84.99% in 2000 to 73.24.% in  2008 and 62 .74% in 2016. In the same vein, water bodies which stood at 4.37% in 2000 reduced to 4.32% in 2008 before declining again in 2016 to 4.27% respectively. The results have  therefore highlighted the nexus between climate change and resource depletion and further provided valuable information for a robust assessment of the changes in vegetal resources of the study area over time. The study recommends sustainable forest resource management, vegetation monitoring and promulgation of vegetation control laws to improve the vegetation cover of the study area.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Siting of Petrol Stations and Compliance to Environmental Regulations in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria

Ahmed M. Yusha’u, Vincent N. Ojeh, Suleman Isa, Danladi M. Yavala

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 25-35
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i430345

Environmental regulation is a complex interdisciplinary effort involving ethical principles, political interests, scientific knowledge, and technological capacities, that covers environmental media and protection and conservation of wildlife, fulfilling environmental legislation requirement. Compliance is a substantial element of environmental regulation. This study appraised the siting of petrol stations and compliance to environmental regulations in Jalingo metropolis. Specifically, it assessed the extent of compliance in the siting of petrol stations in Jalingo metropolis and compared the compliance level of the three categories of petrol stations-Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), major oil marketers and the independent oil marketers. The study adopted the survey research design. Data was obtained from twenty (20) petrol stations, two hundred (200) copies of questionnaires using 3-likert scale and published documents. Both inferential and descriptive statistics was used. The mean cut off of 2.5 was taken as threshold for decision, and any item below 2.5 falls below average and considered negative. Chi-square was used for test of hypothesis which was rejected and the alternative hypothesis was accepted. The findings revealed that major marketers complied more than the independent marketers and the NNPC. It further revealed that the environmental regulations followed by a successful implementation and monitoring, will improve petrol stations level of compliance with environmental laws and regulations. The study recommends the need to reassure the petrol station operators that environmental legislation and environmental regulation requirements are not punitive, but guidelines to help conserve the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Whether is Flood Doom or Boon for Kaziranga National Park of Assam, India?

Bichitra Hira

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 36-49
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i430346


The Kaziranga National Park of Assam is located in the floodplain ecosystem of the Brahmaputra River and hence the flood is the annual feature of the park. Amidst of it, the management for survival of the park along with its spectacular thriving is admirable. However, the perennial flood hurts the park at large carrying tragedies of different kinds such as land erosion, siltation of the water bodies, habitat degradation, damage of physical infrastructure, and exacerbate the accidents of the animals on the NH-37 and the poaching of the helpless animals. Conversely, the flood paybacks the park through nourishing and reviving its ecosystem in several ways such as refill the wetlands, refresh grasslands and remove invasive species, on annual basis. These, otherwise, would entail harder job and hence, a huge cost for the park management. Against this backdrop, an attempt has been made to examine to what extent, the flood is a doom for the park, and is a boon in the park through investigating and critically analyzing of the effects of flood on this world famed wildlife venture. Moreover, how the park authority has managed the flood season to mitigate its adverse outcomes has been examined in this academic work.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Urban Sprawl, Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Voi Town, Kenya Using Remote Sensing and Landscape Metrics

Samantha Kahoya Nyongesa, Marianne Maghenda, Mika Siljander

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 50-61
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i430347


Rapid and uncontrolled urbanization is a major issue in both developing and developed countries. Uncontrolled urbanization has resulted to unplanned expansion of residential and commercial areas, informal settlements, housing shortages, and unplanned land use. Understanding and quantifying urban sprawl spatiotemporal patterns is critical for informing the development of appropriate policies for effective and sustainable land use management. Using image classification and spatial metrics, this study examines the changes in Voi town's urban land use/land cover (LULC) between 1999 and 2019. The LULC was mapped using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM):Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+):and Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) datasets using supervised maximum likelihood classification. A post classification approach was used to detect and assess LULC changes in the study area, while selected spatial metric indices quantified urban sprawl. The results of the change detection analysis revealed that Voi town has been rapidly expanding, with an urban expansion of 187.96 percent from 1999 to 2011, 183.40 percent from 2011 to 2019, and 716.1 percent from 1999 to 2019. In 1999, the built-up area comprised 1.29 percent of the total study area, 3.72 percent in 2011, and 10.53 percent in 2019. Based on spatial metrics analysis, the number of built-up area patches in 1999, 2011, and 2019 was 154, 278, and 526, respectively. An increase in the number of patches indicated fragmentation and the emergence of new built-up areas. 

As a result, city planners will need to plan ahead of time and implement additional measures to deal with the city's future rapid and unprecedented growth.