Open Access Other: Retraction

Visualizing Climate Change Using Perfect Algorithms

Jennifer Mueller-Quast, John Maxwen, Guido Schmidt

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42607

Recent advances in Climate theory and read-write algorithms are based entirely on the assumption that hash tables and courseware are not in conflict with active networks. Given the current status of climate change algorithms, analysts dubiously desire the evaluation of operating systems.

The algorithms method to Scheme is defined not only by the synthesis of Boolean logic but also by the structured need for scatter/gather I/O. Two properties make this approach perfect in its results: we allow IPv6 to emulate efficient models without the investigation of climate change, and also our framework develops ubiquitous theory, without requesting agents. To what extent can reinforcement learning be emulated to realize this intent? We propose a novel solution for the analysis of climate change, which we call Climate Change Algorithm, CCA.

Open Access Short Communication

European Atmospheric Circulation Classifications

Valeriy Khokhlov, Olga Umanska

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/41860

The article describes the objective classification, involving the automated systems application to section the atmospheric processes by types. The objective of typing is to split a collection of objects of a certain sample according to the maximum-distance-separable groups. The basis for objective classification includes several methods: correlation, cluster analysis, nonlinear methods, neural network method, etc.

The second half of the XX century and the beginning of XXI century are characterized by high rates of changes in climatic and circulation conditions. An occurrence of rare weather extremes is a manifestation of the transition state of the atmosphere and its instability. Often regional differences have more significant variations than global ones. Therefore, progress in the understanding of current trends of climate change is impossible without taking into account the spatio-temporal dynamics of atmospheric processes. The author considers the main principles of Grosswetterlagen (GWL) classification and investigates regional characteristics of synoptic processes in the territory of Europe based on the characteristics of the surface pressure field and displacement trajectories of the primary pressure systems.

The purpose of this paper is to explore one of the most popular classifications for the European region and to establish the possibility of its further application to the territory of Ukraine.

Research methods: a statistical description of the synoptic types for Europe for the period from September 1957 up to August 2002.

Results of the study confirm the fact that the GWL classification can be successfully used to synoptic processes and works better in the central, western and southern parts of Europe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elemental Composition of Core Sediments in Niger Delta Mangrove, Nigeria

Nnawugwu Nwawuike, Hiroaki Ishiga

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42913

Mangrove core sediments from Choba, Ogbogoro and Isaka in Niger Delta, Nigeria were analyzed to determine their geochemical composition. The ecological risk of the metal concentrations was assessed using Contamination Factor (CF) and Enrichment Factor (EF) while the quality of the sediments was determined using sediment quality guidelines. The results indicated contrasting metal concentrations with depth and location as shown by the box plots and cross sectional graphs. The average concentration of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, V, Nb and Th were found to be most abundant in Choba while As, Sr and TS were most concentrated in Ogbogoro. Compared with the upper continental crust (UCC) values, As, Ni, Cr and V were higher in all the sampled locations. Pb and Th were higher in Choba and Ogbogoro while Zn, Cu and Nb were higher only in Choba. The concentration of biogenic and provenance metals in Isaka are largely geogenic due to strong TiO2  association with Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, V, Sr, Nb and Th. As enrichment in Choba, Ogbogoro and Isaka is anthropogenic. Comparison with the sediment quality guidelines showed that Ni impact in Choba is severe while Cr concentration level in Choba, Ogbogoro and Isaka might have adverse ecotoxic impact on biota.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Solid Waste Management Process in Rangpur City Corporation Area

Md. Ferdous Sarker, Md. Zakiur Rahman

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42225

Proper waste management process is very important for a healthy city environment. Recently, many city/urban areas have emerged in Bangladesh, where a considerable amount of solid wastes are produced daily. Rangpur City Corporation (RpCC) is a newly developed city in the northern part of Bangladesh having 33 wards. Among them, only 15 wards are practicing solid waste management process. These 15 wards cover the vital portion of RpCC. This paper intends to describe the solid waste management process and present scenario of different waste dumping points within the study area. The primary data has been directly collected from field survey along with GPS survey in order to assess and monitor the waste dumping points. Besides, secondary data/information were collected from books, journal, and websites. This study recommends that a detailed GIS database can be used to monitor and manage the solid waste of the city.

Open Access Review Article

Fifty Years after “How to Wreck the Environment”: Anthropogenic Extinction of Life on Earth

J. Marvin Herndon, Mark Whiteside, Ian Baldwin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42006

Aims: Fifty years ago geoscientist Gordon J. F. MacDonald penned a book-chapter entitled, “How to Wreck the Environment”, in which he described how a nation might alter the environment so as to covertly inflict harm on an enemy nation. Our objective is to review MacDonald’s suggestions of environmental warfare strategies in light of subsequent technological advances, and in the context of actual deployment of the war methods he described.

Methods: We review the interdisciplinary, historical, scientific and medical literature.

Results: MacDonald discussed overt and covert weather warfare based upon seeding clouds to cause rainfall. Subsequently, a method was developed for inhibiting rainfall by jet-emplacing pollution particulates where clouds form. For at least two decades citizens have observed such particulate trails occurring with increasing frequency. Forensic scientific investigations implicate toxic coal fly ash as their main constituent. Around 2010, the aerial particulate spraying ramped-up to a near-daily, near-global level. Presumably, a secret international agreement mandated the aerial spraying as a ‘sunshade’ for Earth. However, aerial spraying, rather than cooling, heats the atmosphere, retards Earth’s heat loss, and causes global warming. MacDonald also discussed destroying atmospheric ozone and triggering earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, activities now possible with high-frequency ionospheric heaters.

Conclusions: The U. S. military’s ongoing decision to weaponize the environment for national security purposes was accurately forecasted by MacDonald. But he failed to realize that national militaries could and would be co-opted by a secret international agreement the consequence of which, however unintentional, was to wage war on planet Earth, on all its biota, and on its natural, biogeochemical processes. Unless and until politicians, news media, scientists, and others in our society face the truth of what is happening before their very eyes and collectively demand a halt to these covert technological activities, we will march onward – to the first anthropogenic-caused mass extinction.