Open Access Short Research Article

Chemical Contaminants Assessment Influencing the Proper Funcntioning of the Waste Water Treatment Plant in a Brewing Factory: Case of SABC Yaounde -Cameroon

Obono Mba Félicité, Moudio Privat Gael, Madomguia Diane, Abdou Bouba Armand

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i10636

The present study were carried out in the brewing factory of Cameroon (SABC) Yaoundé focuses on the evaluation of chemical contaminants influencing the wastewater treatment plant.

Standard methods of analysis of physicochemical parameters of wastewater in anaerobic sludge were done according to Waterleau [1].

The information collected made it possible to evaluate chemical contaminants according to the use of water, water solubility and dangerousness.

It was found that, chemical contaminants are mostly disinfectants (30%) and cleaning products (15%). Nevertheless, there are others used for pH regulation, such as beer stabilizers, etc. The wastewater treatment plant has shown overall good yields. The temperature that varies between 31°C and 32°C, characterise an optimal temperature for the metabolism of microorganisms. The pH oscillates between 7 and 10 characterise majority the alkaline waters. This study shows that the presence of chemical contaminants in discharge water which came from different part of the factory and were other chemical are used, influences microorganism area and can affect their health of purification microorganisms by acting on the physico-chemical parameters of wastewater and sludge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping of Geological Lineaments from Different Sun Elevation Angles Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM): A Case Study of Nigeria Geology Map Series Sheet 135 (Duhu Sheet)

Lazarus G. Ndatuwong

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i10634

The study focuses on the mapping of geological lineaments from the following different sun elevation angles: 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315° of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Four of the images with azimuth; 0°, 45°, 90° and 135° were combined to produce a single image with multi-illumination directions. The images with azimuth; 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315° were equally combined to produce another single shaded relief image with multi-illumination directions. The two multi-illumination direction images were used for the automatic lineament extraction using PCI Geomatica software. The extracted lineaments were overlaid, and duplicate lineaments were eliminated. The final lineaments of the study area were screened using high-resolution Google images for non-geological features. A total of 237 lineaments were extracted, with a total length of 649.77Km, a mean length of 2.742Km and standard deviation of 1.187. The dominant trending pattern in the final lineaments of the study area is NE-SW direction. The Lineament density for the study area ranges from 0 to 1.36 km/sqkm with about 69.1% of the study area being mapped as poor and low density while the high and very high densities area account for just about 30.9% of the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

High-Resolution Biostratigraphic, and Paleoenvironmental Analysis of AJAYI-01 Well, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Mayowa D. Ajayi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 11-27
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i10635

A high-resolution biostratigraphy study and paleoenvironment analysis were carried out on composited fifteen (15) ditch-cutting samples retrieved from AJAYI-01 well, offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria. The studied intervals range from 4060feet – 4960feet and were subjected to foraminifera, calcareous nannofossil and palynological analysis to determine their age, biozonation and environment of deposition. The standard laboratory preparation techniques of wet sieving, simple smear method, and Hydrofluoric (HF) and Hydrochloric (HCl) acids maceration techniques respectively. A sedimentological description of the ditch-cutting samples was carried out.

Three major foraminifera zones of Turborotalia peripheroacuta/Bolivina mandoroveensis Zone, Praeorbulina glomerosa/Nonion centrosulcatum Zone and Catapsydrax dissimilis/Buliminella subfusiformis Zone and the important marker Heterostegina sp. was recognized in the well based on the critical evaluation of bioevents and correlatable datums. The nannofossil zones of Helicosphaera ampliaperta and Sphenolithus heteromorphus were erected for this well based on the index taxa and fossil assemblage recorded. The palynological data consists of highly diversified assemblages dominated by terrestrial forms such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus, Laevigatosporites sp., Verrucatosporites sp., Retitricolporites sp., Acrostichum aureum. The important marker recorded was Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni (FDO) at 4420feet. The well is dated early to middle Miocene (NN4 –NN5) based on the occurrence of marker species Helicosphaera ampliaperta and Sphenolithus heteromophus which corresponds to Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni - Echitricolporites spinosus Zone (P720-P680) subzones.

A tentative sequence stratigraphic framework for the studied sequences was established. A condensed section that is associated with the Maximum Flooding Surface (MFS) was dated 15.20Ma at 4480 feet based on peak faunal abundance and diversity. The environment of deposition has sediments deposited in the marine environment fluctuating between middle neritic and inner neritic to the littoral, including coastal deltaic settings based on deductions from foraminiferal, palynological and sedimentological data.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of the Extent of Application of Geosynthetics to Civil Infrastructure Projects in Ghana

Matthew Kwaw Somiah, Daniel Brobbey, Frederick Owusu Danso, Winfred Sena Honu, Francis Cudjoe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i10637

This study was informed by the lack of literature that gave a country-specific holistic account of the extent of the application of geosynthetics to civil infrastructure projects. Thus, this current study determined the extent that geosynthetics had been applied to civil infrastructure projects in Ghana and, established the relative level of application of geosynthetics to civil infrastructure projects in Ghana. Structured questionnaire aided in data collection. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and one sample t-test. The study revealed that there was a low level of application of geosynthetics to civil infrastructure projects in Ghana. However, Ghana’s case was of great concern as geosynthetics had been applied to only 7 out of the 28 civil infrastructure projects identified in previous studies. Pipe projects had the most application of geosynthetics whereas geosynthetics were least applied to retaining structures. Moreso, the study further revealed that only 6 out of the 9 types of geosynthetics had been applied to civil infrastructure projects in Ghana namely: geopipes, geomembranes, geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, and geocells. Relatively, geopipes were the most applied geosynthetics whereas geocells were the least applied geosynthetics to civil infrastructure projects in Ghana. This study serves as reference material on the extent of application of geosynthetics to civil infrastructure projects in Ghana which hitherto was lacking in the construction industry in Ghana. It also serves as the basis for future studies on the application of geosynthetics as it contributes to the existing body of literature on the subject.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Climate Smart Agriculture Practices on Household Livelihoods in Soy Sub-county Kenya

Frankline Yatich, Amon Karanja, Humphreys Obulinji

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 49-55
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i10639

Aims: This study sought to analyze the effects of adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices on farmers’ livelihoods in Soy sub County Kenya.

Study Design: The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design, specifically use of household questionnaires, and interviewing key informants were used to come up with both quantitative and qualitative data.

Place and Duration of Study: the study was conducted in two sites in Soy sub-County Kenya: Soy and Kipsomba ward. The study was conducted in the period October –December 2019.   

Methodology: Structured household questionnaires (N-196) and interviews with Key informant (N-6) were conducted in two agro-ecological zones. Descriptive statistical analysis was used .while results from key informants were used to collect valuable data that was useful in checking the validity of responses obtained through the use of questionnaires.    

Results: The study found that 88.7% of the farming households that had adopted CSA practices led to increased yields, 73.46 % of farming households felt that the adoption led to increased income, 7.65 % felt that it has led to employment creation, 4.08 % felt that the adoption led to control of pest and 0.06 % felt that it led to control of weeds. This is an indication that the adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices can be the useful approach for mitigating climate variability effects, building more resilient livelihoods, improving food security and alleviating poverty.     

Conclusion: in order to improve on the climate variability adaptation smallholder farmers need to adopt more of CSA practices to turn around the of food insecurity threats. The study concludes that the adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices positively and negatively influences the livelihoods of farming households in Soy sub- County.